Southeast Asia

In Southeast Asia, there were various kingdoms and empires. I'm going to talk about four. These include the Pagan Kingdom, the Khmer Empire, Trading Kingdoms, and Vietnam.

The Pagan Kingdom~

       The Pagan Kingdom reigned from 840- the late 1200's. King Anawrahta was the first ruler of the Kingdom, who ruled from 1044-1077. Anawrahta was really a great important to the kingdom because he expanded the empire and united much of Myanmar. Plus he really brought the people to a whole new level economically and commerce wise.  Towards the end of the Pagan Kingdom's rule, the Mongols attacked the Kingdom. This occurrence happened for 40 years. And Anawrahta held them off for that long. But any Kingdom can only withstand so much. And finally he had no choice but to surrender to the Mongols. And that marked the end of the Pagan Kingdom in 1287 A.D.

The Khmer Empire~

The Khmer Empire was a very powerful Monarchy Empire in Southeast Asia. Their founding leader was Jayavarman II. The Empire ruled from 802 through 1431 A.D. Angkor was the capital of the Empire. The Khmer's had a very strong Indian influence overall. Buddhism and Hinduism also were very influential in the empire. Some of the greatest achievements of the Khmer Empire were their advances in architecture. They started out with smaller temples and such. Then went bigger and better from there. But like all good things, they come to an end. And so did the Khmer empire. In 1434, after the Thai captured Angkor, the capital was transferred to Phnom Penh. And this event marks the end of the brilliance of the Khmer civilization.

Khmer Empire Archetecture
Khmer Empire Sculpture
Khmer Empire Map
These are masks that the Trading Kingdoms of West Africa would of made.

Trading Kingdoms~

        Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, are the three Trading Kingdoms. All of which are located in West Africa. They got their name for having such expanse trading routes to all over the Sahara Desert. Obviously, they did some trading from time to time... they traded through their set routes for centuries. They traded items such as gold and many agricultural products. This trade was a big money maker and made these kingdoms pretty rich. Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were all greatly influenced by Islamic culture. Ghana had many Islamic Advisors which were . But Mali and Songhai were a bit more dedicated than Ghana when it came to Islam. They both founded Islamic Empires once they converted to Islam. In Mali, the now famous emperor Mansa Musa of Mali made the pilgrimage to Medina. Making the ties between Mali and Islamic world that much tighter. One of the great achievements of the Trading Kingdoms was their art. In which, religious artwork would be carved of Ivory from elephant tusks, wood, or bronze.

A map of the Trading Kingdoms and their trade routes.


Vietnam was conquered by the Han Dynasty in 111 B.C. and they were not able to free themselves until 939 A.D. So they were ruled by the Chinese for quite some time. But after they broke free from the Chinese rule, they became a bureaucracy. And even though they were free from the Chinese at last, they still adsorbed a lot of Chinese culture. But Soon after they won their independence from China, China wanted them back. So after a few brief wars between the two nations. China won, and Vietnam was conquered again.

Cham Towers in Vietnam.
Map of Vietnam in 111 B.C.

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