The Evolution of
Communist Theory & Practice
Karl Marx was born on 1818 in Prussia into a wealthy middle class family. Marx stipudied in the Universitiy of Bon and University of Berlin where he began to like philosophical ideas which made him to write radical newspapers. In 1848, Marx and Friedrich Engales released the Communist Mani, promoting socialism and communism.
Marx believed that communism will start into as a result of problems between the capitalist and the proletariat . Marx's view of capitalism was that it was a "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie" ran by the capitalist to benefit themselves. As a result, it would lead to self destruction because of the problems between the bourgeoisie and proletariat. Eventually, this will result in favor of the proletariat and establish communism and a classless society.
"Father of the Revolution"
Lenin fled from Russia to western Europe from the Czar. As Lenin heard about people going against the Russian government because of WWI, quick industrialization which caused harsh working conditions and low pay, he returned to Russia to start the revolution.
After Lenin came to power he started to establish his New Economic Policy which had both communist/ socialist ideas. this allowed the smaller businesses to manage them selves and the peasants to grow surplus and dint have to give it all to the government. Lenin renamed Russia to the USSR, Union of Soviet Socialist Republic. Also, the Bolsheviks were renamed to communists.
Marx's and Lenin's ideas are very similar since Lenin was influenced greatly by Marx.
They both believed history was a story of class struggle between the capitalist and proletariat but Lenin believed the peasants would also be involved . Lenin believed the Communist Revolution would start when the peasants were pushed by a leader to their limit while Marx believed the Revolution was bound to happen eventually when the capitalist and proletariat classes fought. marx belived that the revolution will happen in urban countries while Lenin belived it will happen in rual and urban countries
After the humiliation that China went through trying to imperialize. They decided to change their government. China came up with two different ideas; one was that Chinese people believed that modernization and nationalism was key to succeed, the other idea was to go back to traditional ways. A man named Sun Yixian established the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) to push for modernization and nationalist ideas. Sun wanted to establish democratic ideas in chine but later thought that he will not succeed so he put in command a powerful general who abandons democratic ideas. After he dies the new government sparks revolts and starts a civil war. On 1917 china declares war on Germany in hope of land. After the disappointment from the Treaty of Versailles they don't get land in return it all went to Japan. As a result to protest students, workers, shopkeepers and professionals join in for the May Fourth Movement.
On 1921 Mao Zedong comes in and establishes his own Chinese Communist Party. In time he developed his own Communism he believed that it will happen in a rural countries and the peasant could be leaders in the revolution. One of Mao's communist ideas was the Cultural Revolution which made the youth be able to go against intellectuals, party leaders, even their own parents. These teenagers became known as the Red Guards. Mao also commanded the Red Guards to go against the Four Olds : old customs, old culture, old ideas and old habits. In addition Zedong received help from Lenin so that the Chinese Communist be able to join the Kuomintang.
Marx, Lenin, and Zedong all have similar communist ideas. They were all radial which made it easier for them to take power. There were some differences in where will communism start and who will lead the revolution. As we know Zedong believed that it will happen in a rural country and the peasants will lead in the revolution. Marx belived it will happen in a urban country and lead by the proletariat. When Lenin believed it will happen in both rural and urban, will be lead by the peasants but need a leader.
The Communist Party of Cuba ruled by Raul Castro and previously ruled by his brother FIdel Castro. Cuba had a number of communist and anarchist organizations from the earl periodof the Republic (founded in 1902). The original intyernationalized Communist Party of Cuba formed in the 1920s
During the interwar years people started to go against communist and socialist ideas. In Italy and man named Mussolini established a new ideology of Fascism. He also created a group called the BlackShirts which were sent to kill all communist and socialist. Hitler in Germany also went against the communist and socialist he set up his own group to go against and kill the communist they were called the Stormtroopers. In Japan Hirohito changes to become Fascist because Japan was weakening and he wanted to expand the the Japanese borders.
I think that communism isn't a good idea because at the end there are not a lot of countries with this ideology.