Nutrition 2 - Nutrients
- carbohydrate - starches and sugars found in foods, which provide your body's main source of energy
- fiber - a tough complex carbohydrate that the body cannot digest
- proteins - nutrients the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues
- cholesterol - a waxy, fatlike substsance
- vitamins - compounds found in food that help regulate many body processes
- minerals - elements found in food that are used by the body
There are six types of nutrients.
Energy nutrients - carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
Other functions - vitamins, minerals, and water
Energy nutrients - The energy in food comes from three sources: carbs, protein, and fats. Each gram of carbohydrate or protein provides four calories of energy. Each gram of fat provides nine calories. The body uses these nutrients to build, repair, and fuel itself.
There are three types of carbohydrates: simple, complex, and fiber
Simple carbohydrates - Sugars such as fructose (fruit) and lactose (milk). They are also added to many processed foods, such as cold cereals, bread, and bakery products
Complex carbohydrates - Also known as starches, are long chains of sugars linked together. Common sources include grains, bread, pasta, and vegetables.
Fiber - Fiber moves waste through your digestive system. Eating foods high in fiber can help you feel full, and may reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Good sources of fiber include fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes.
The role of carbohydrates
Your body uses carbohydrates by breaking them down into their simplest forms. Most of the carbs you consume are turned into a simple sugar called glucose, which is the main source of fuel for the body's tissues. Glucose can be stored in the body and used later.
Proteins are made up of chemicals called amino acids
Your body uses about 20 amino acids that are found in food. Your body produces all but nine of the amino acids. These nine are called the essential amino acids because the body must get them from food. The rest are known as nonessential amino acids.
Other proteins are from animal sources such as meat, eggs, and dairy products. They are sometimes called complete proteins because they contain all nine essential amino acids. Proteins from plant sources are usually missing one or more essential amino acids.
The role of protein
Protein is the basic building material of all your body cells. Muscles, bones, skin, and internal organs are all constructed of protein. Protein helps your body grow during childhood and adolescence. Throughout your life, protein will maintain muscles, ligaments, tendons, and all body cells.
Fats are nutrients that provide energy and perform many functions for your body. they carry fat-soluble vitamins and promote healthy skin and normal growth. Foods that are high in fats tend to be high in calories. For that reason, health experts generally recommend that your eating plan include only moderate amounts of fat.
Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins are substances needed in small quantities to help regulate body functions. Vitamins helps the body fight infections, use nutrients, and perform other tasks.
Minerals are elements needed in small quantities for forming healthy bones, teeth, and for regulating certain body processes.
Water is a nutrient that is vital to your life and health. It makes up over half of your body and serves many important functions. Water transports nutrients through your body, helps you digest food, lubricates your joints, removes waste, and helps regulate body temperature.