ANIMALS: arctic fox, arctic hare, caribou, narwhal, polar bear, snowy owl, wolverine, seal
PLANTS: hair grass, pearlwort, dwarf shrubs, herbs, grasses, mosses, and lichens
Sunlight, a lot of water, extremely cold, cold water, ice, snow, rock, mountains sunlight,
Carrying Capacity and Changes Population
The largest number of individuals of one species that an environment can support.
Polar bears are one of the main animals that you see when you think of the arctic. One of the main resources of a polar bear is the space it needs to roam and find foods in there habitat. But, the space is running out. Since it is getting hotter the ice is melting and less space to find food. The population of polar bears are decreasing are an effect.
Any factor or condition that limits the growth of a population in an ecosystem
Limiting Factors in the Arctic: higher then normal temperatures, not enough food, and not enough plants for herbivores.
Predator and Prey Relationship
Polar bears and seals are one of the few predator and prey relation ships in the Arctic. Limiting factors (including heat, and space) affect the relationship by the ice melting and the polar bears unable to reach there food. In many cases the polar bears are so hungry and they need food so they swim great distances to find seals, but the polar bears sometimes do not have enough strength to swim back. The polar bears unfortunately drown because of the limiting factors in this environment.
PRODUCERS: Organisms that make their own food by photosynthesis
Examples: Flowering plants, dwarf shrubs, herbs, mosses, and lichens
CONSUMERS: Organisms that do not make their own food and rely on eating other organisms to receive energy.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONSUMERS
Herbivores: Consumers that eat only plants
Examples: Caribou and Arctic Hares
CARNIVORES: Animals that eat only consumers
Examples: Polar Bear, Walrus, Wolverine, and Narwhal
OMNIVORES: Animals that eat both producers and consumers
Examples: Arctic Fox and Seal
SCAVENGERS: Animals that eat on dead animals
DECOMPOSERS: Organisms that break down wastes and dead animals and return the nutrients to the ground
Each of these energy roles have to get there energy from somewhere. The producers get there energy from the sun. Consumers get there energy from the other organisms they eat. Decomposers get there energy from dead animals or wastes that they decompose.
The role of producers in energy transfer from the sun is that they receive the energy from the sun and transfer it into food. They give energy to animals and then all consumers. They are vital to an ecosystem because they start with all of the energy.
Food Chains and Food Webs
Food webs are more realistic than food chains because food webs only show from one level to the next, while the food web shows all of the different options from all the energy roles.
If I happened to have taken one of the main species, like the polar bear, then there would be an increase to ringed seal, so eventually a decrease to Arctic cod. It will eventually mess up the entire ecosystem, maybe even make one of the species extinct. If one population were to be removed it would mess up the overall "balance" of the ecosystem and negatively affect the other populations in the ecosystem.
It is much better to use a pyramid than a cylinder shaped chain, because the pyramid shows the energy decreasing as it passes through the trophic levels.
Producers are at the lower level and top predators are at the smallest level, because the producers have a larger population and they have more energy. While the top predators have a lower population and receive the least amount of energy. It represents the energy decreasing by ten percent as it passes through each level.
The things needed for photosynthesis are Carbon Dioxide, Water, and Light. The things produced by photosynthesis are Glucose (the food) and Oxygen (the wastes).
The chloroplast is where the process photosynthesis takes place in the plant cell.
The energy transformation occurring is the radiant energy from the sun converts into chemical energy, or food.
Tropisms: turning or being movement of an organism toward or away from an external stimulus, such as light, heat, or gravity.
Examples: The most likely tropisms in the Arctic are Hydrotropism, which is the movement or growth in response to moisture or water, and Thermotropism, which is the movement or growth in response to temperature.
These tropisms affect if the plant survives. An example is, the plant moves towards the heat in the Arctic because it's really cold. Or if a plant needs the water or it gets to much water it needs to move away from the water. Because of the movement, the plants are able to survive.
Decomposers are vital to an ecosystem because they recycle the nutrients of dead matter. They put nutrients into the soil so plants can grow.
If you moved decomposers out of an ecosystem then there wouldn't be any nutrients in the ground for plants to grow. You would take out the only way consumers can get energy, so they would eventually die out.
Types of decomposers I would find in my ecosystem would be round worms, maggot larvae, and carrion beetles.
It is important for an animal to adapt to it's environment so it can help it survive by getting food or other survival needs. Adaptions help an animal to survive by letting the animal change to the way the environment changes.
Behavioral: Living together, migration, hibernation, and dormancy.
Physical: Large coat of fur, white fur, can breathe underwater for hours (seal), many animals can swim far
Plant: Are small and grow together (to protect themselves from wind and cold), fuzzy leaves and buds, cupped flowers, dark colored, shallow roots, and have small leaves.
If i were to place an animal, such as a seal, into another environment things would turn out bad. Let's say I placed a polar bear into a desert environment his adaptations wouldn't help at all. Since he has the large coat of fur, to protect him from the cold, he would get to hot. The polar bear would start to dehydrate and it wouldn't be able to get any water. The bear would eventually die of starvation.
Natural selection is the process by which certain inheritable traits become more common in a population over successive generations.
Natural selection is very important for animals in an ecosystem because it spreads around the adaptations that are most effective in the changing environment.
A great example of natural selection in the arctic is polar bears. Bears went into the arctic with brown fur. The bear reproduce and one of the bears has a white fur variation. The bears have competition and it is easier for the bear with white fur to hunt, because the bear can blend in with the snow. Over many generations the bears are mostly white with large coats of fur, because of the environment. Eventually, the brown furred bears leave and take the forest as their home and environment.
The cause of change in this environment was, the snow, because the bears could sneak up on their prey giving the a major advantage over other bears.