Chapter 16 - Section 4 -
Rise of Austria and Prussia

Alexa, Quinn, Austin and Shelby

Learning Objectives

Causes and Results of the 30 Years War:

(Causes)

- Holy Roman Empire by 17th Century became a patchwork of German States

- Holy Roman Emperor was chosen by 7 German princes called electors, but the emperor had little power because princes were creating a power vacuum.

- Second reason is religion - the north was Protestant while the south stayed Catholic.

(Results)

- 1648 signed the Peace of Westphalia

- France gained territories in both Germany and Spain

- Hapsburg lost a lot, they gave independence to almost all princes of the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, and the Swiss gained independence.

- Left German lands divided into 360 separate states.

- By the end of the war, as much as 1/3 of the German people had died.

How did European nations try to maintain a balance of power?

- 1750 main powers were Austria, Prussia, France, Britain, and Russia.

- These nations formed alliances to maintain balance of power.

- 7 Years' War was fought on 4 continents, by the end Britain had gained a huge empire - changing the balance of power for the next 100 years.

How did Austria and Prussia emerge as great powers?

Austria

- After 30 years greatly weakened Hapsburg

- Kept the title of Holy Roman Empire

- Adding Bohemia, Hungary, parts of Poland, and some Italian states.

- Later Maria Theresa strengthened economy by reorganizing bureaucracy and improving tax collecting.

Prussia

- Became a power under Fredrick William I

- He gained loyalty of Junkers by giving position in the army and government.

- Had great emphasis on army, and was one of the best trained.

- Fredrick II came to power and attacked Austria, taking Silesia and forcing the world to recongnize Prussia as a great power.


Focus Questions

1. Q. What are some affects of the peace of Westphalia?

- France got more land & Germany got split up.


2. Q. what caused the war of the Austrian Succession?

- Fredrick II of Prussia seized the rich Hapsburg province of Silesia.


3. Q. How did Fredrick William I increase his power?

- Fredrick had a brilliant & disciplined military which he wasted no time using when he became king in 1740.


4. Q. What were the two main rivalries after 1750?

- Prussia battled Austria for control of German states & Britain competed France to develop their over seas empires.

Frederick William I was a Prussian ruler who came to power after the death of his father in 1713.

This is a map of Europe after the Thirty Years' War

This is Frederick II, who came to power after Frederick  I.

This picture represents soldiers rummaging through a village during the Thirty Years War.

This is Germany after the Thirty Years' War, as you can see, it was split into a lot of states.

This is a picture of the Peace of Westphalia that was made in 1648, ending the Thirty Years' War.

This pictures shows a battle during the Thirty Years' War.

This is a map of part of the area involved with the Seven Years' War.

This is a map of one of the battles, The Battle of Leuthen, in the Seven Years' War

This is a picture of the battle of Rossbach in the Seven Years' War.