6) Summarize political problems faced by Latin America including the control of military juntas
By: Sam Krampitz and Kailey Rivera
Issues in Mexico
Mexico in Time of Crisis:
In 1910 Mexicans were dedicated to over throwing both elite rule and foreign economic control, this conflict lasted until 1930. Their demands for land and liberty were institutionalized in the constitution of 1917 and from then on mexican presidents designed policies to carry out reform. Constitution stated that the Mexican government owed its sub oil and it's products and that the state had the right tom redistribute land to peasants after confenscating and compensating land owners. The constitution also incorporated reformists social laws and guaranteed civil liberties. Lazaro Cardenas, during his presidency he returned 45 million acres to peasants and took control of Mexican oil wells from forgiven investors.
Problems in Argentina
Given its geographical position far from the United States, it remained relatively independent against US and European economic and political intervention in the region, however a gradual shift to free elections and sharing of political power also emerged. Given the military central rule in its politics Argentina became a model of a less positive form of political organization
During WWII nationalistic leaders gained power in Argentina and a government based in military was established in 1946. Juan Perón, who was a kernel in the army, was elected president of Argentina. He promoted nationalistic populism calling for industrialization, support for the working class and protection of the economy from forgien control. After Juan's leave from office in 1970, brutal military dictators held control for the next 3 decades
Juan's wife who was labeled as "Evita" or "little Eva" was a major player in the role of politics. Durning this time, she tirelessly worked to minister the needs of the poor, who formed the major supporters of her husbands rule. After her death at the age of 33, the country mourned of the woman who had been elevated to the status of "Santa Evita".
Time After Perón
After Juan Peróns leave from office in 1970, brutal military dictators held control for the next 3 decades. These dictators approved of the creation of death squads who fought a "Dirty War". Military juntas, or governments controlled by war lords that used violence as a source of control, were very prevalent during this time. Between 6 thousand and 23 thousand people disappeared between 1976 and 1983. Calls for the return to democratic policies increased after the dirty war. Political models and options that were available to the states in Latin America were very diverse, including communist and social regimes. Although political security often eluded Latin American nations, these industrializing nations continued to seek stability and independence from foreign interference.