Kettner's Science Class
By: Kara P.

A waxing moon is the moon at any time after new moon and before full moon, so called because its illuminated area is increasing.

A waning moon is the moon at any time after full moon and before new moon so called because its illuminated area is decreasing.

A gibbous moon is having the observable illuminated part greater than a semicircle and less than a circle.

A crescent moon is the curved sickle shape of the waxing or waning moon.

When you see a waxing moon you see mostly the right hand side.

When you see a waning moon you mostly see the left hand side.

A Lunar cycle is another name for a metonic cycle which is a cycle of 235 synodic months, very nearly equal to 19 years, after which the new moon occurs on the same day of the year as at the beginning of the cycle with perhaps a shift of one day, depending on the number of leap years in the cycle.

One Lunar cycle lasts 29.53059 days.


Copernicus was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at its center.

We have seasons because the earth is tilted, as it makes its yearly journey around the sun. The Earth's axis is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degrees. This means that the Earth is always "pointing" to one side as it goes around the Sun.

In the winter, the northern hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun, which means that the Sun’s rays hit this part of the Earth in a more oblique or slanted manner. Since there is less direct sunshine, less energy is absorbed by the surface and the temperature is lower. If you look up towards the Sun at noon in the winter, you will see that the Sun lower in the sky.

The Moon happens to be too far from Earth for its disk to completely hide the Sun, an annular eclipse occurs. Because the Moon's orbit around Earth is slightly inclined with respect to the ecliptic, solar and Lunar eclipses do not occur every month, but only a few times per year.

We have day and night because the Earth rotates. It spins on its axis, which is an imaginary line passing through the North and South Poles. The Earth spins slowly all the time, but we don't feel any movement because it turns smoothly and at the same speed.

Equinox is when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator,making night and day of approximately equal length all over the earth and occurring about March 21 and September 22.

Solstice is when either of the two times a year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator: about June 21, when the sun reaches its northernmost point on the celestial sphere, or about December 22, when it reaches its southernmost point.


Alfred Wegener was a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist. He is know for creating the continental drift which is the gradual movement of the continents across the earth's surface through geological time.

Convergent is coming closer together, especially in characteristics or ideas.

Divergent is tending to be different or develop in different directions.

Transform boundaries also known as conservative plate boundary since these  faults neither create nor destroy lithosphere, is a type of fault whose relative motion is predominantly horizontal in either sinistral or dextral direction.

The Juan de Fuca tectonic plate is just off the coast of Washington. This subducting plate system has formed the Cascade Range, the Cascade Volcanic Arc, and the Pacific ranges, along the west coast of North America from southern British columbia to northern California. These in turn are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire , a much larger-scale volcanic feature that extends around much of the rim of the Pacific Ocean.

A convection current is a current in a fluid that results from convection. Convection currents in the magma drive plate tectonics. Large convection currents in the aesthenosphere transfer heat to the surface, where plumes of less dense magma break apart the plates at the spreading centers, creating divergent plate boundaries.

A rift zone is a feature of some volcanoes, especially shield volcanoes, in which a linear series of fissures in the volcanic edifice allows lava to be erupted from the volcano's flank instead of from its summit.

A subduction zone is he biggest smash-up on Earth, marking the collision between two of the planet's tectonic plates, the pieces of crust that slowly move across the surface over millions of years. When two tectonic plates meet, one may slide underneath the other, curving down into the mantle.

The  Channeled Scablands were created by the cataclysmic Missoula floods that swept periodically across eastern Washington and down the Coulmbia River Plateau during the Pleistocene epoch. First suggested in 1925 to Bretz that the draining of a glacial lake could account for flows of the magnitude needed. Pardee countinued his research over the next 30 years, collecting and analyzing evidence that eventually identified Lake Missoula  as the source of the Missoula Floods and creator of the Channeled Scablands.



Sedimentary rock is of, relating to, or of the nature of sediment. Metamorphic is    pertaining to or characterized by change of form,or metamorphisis. Igneous rock is produced under conditions involvingintense heat, as rocks of volcanic origin or rockscrystallized from molten magma.

An example of a sedimentary rock could be Arkose. An example of a metamorphic rock would be Marble. An example of an igneous rock would be Obsidian.

Stratification is a system or formation of layers, classes, or categories.

If there is more rock layers it tends to be older since more sediment has formed into rock over time. The shape of rock layers too can estimate the age of landforms, since jagged rocks are much younger than flat thick rocks, due to erosion.

Geologically the older layer of rock could be on the newer rock because some one could have tipped the rock over after the younger layer formed.


A cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism.

Beyond size, the main structural differences in plants and animal cells lie in a few additional structures found in plant cells. These structures include: chloroplasts, the cell wall, and vacuoles.

The three basic functions of blood cells are to transport oxygen throughout the body, fight infection and to stop bleeding. Osteoclasts are in the first category. They dissolve the bone. The other category is the osteoblast family, which consists of osteoblasts that form bone, osteocytes that help maintain bone, and lining  cells that cover the surface of the bone.  Adipose tissue, or fat, is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body.

They are all parts of our body that makes us function properly, the cells make up the tissues, the tissues make up the organs-the organs have various functions like the heart this has to be in our body because this is like the body's engine it keeps the blood circulating all the time and by this lots of factors occurs like it transports oxygen around the body from the veins and the arteise carries back carbondioxide.

The digestive system The walls of the small intestine absorb the digested nutrients into the bloodstream. The blood delivers the nutrients to the rest of the body. Large intestine. The waste products of the digestive process include undigested parts of food and older cells from the GI tract lining. The blood circulatory system delivers nutrients and oxygen to all cells in the body. It consists of the heart and the blood vessels running through the entire body. The arteries carry blood away from the heart; the veins carry it back to the heart. The respiratory system does this through breathing. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases is the respiratory system means of getting oxygen to the blood. Resperation is achieved through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm. The respiratory system takes in oxygen from the atmosphere and moves that oxygen into the bloodstream. The circulatory system then carries the oxygen to all the cells in the body and picks up carbon dioxide waste which it returns to the lungs. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the lungs and it is then exhaled into the atmosphere.

This repersents the degestive system.
This is the circulatory system.
This represents the respiratory system.

My observation of a paramecium is that is gross and shouldn't exist its really nasty. It's pretty much just like the other types of cells but has no purpose. Paramecium have tiny hair-like things, called cilia, all around the outside of their cell. Cilia are important, because they are how Paramecium move. By beating the cilia back and forth, the Paramecium can move through the water. Protists with cilia, such as Paramecium, move much faster than other protists.


GG in a punnet square represents homozygous dominant, Gg represents heterozygous, and gg represents homozygous recessive.

There could be three green flowers and three yellow flowers.

There could be two homozygous outcomes.

There could be two heterozygous outcomes.

Because the zygote formed from the gametes of two"parents" contains a mixture of genes from each. Half are the "mothers" and half are from the "father". The Phenotype is an expression of this genotype. Asexual reproduction is essentially just cloning yourself because the genes are only from one organism.

Adaption is the action or process of adapting or being adapted.

Evolution is the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.

Species are a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.

A gene is a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.

Genetic things are of or relating to genes or heredity.

Sexual reproduction is the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types of sexes.

Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it is reproduction which almost never involves ploidy or reduction.

All living organisms carry a genetic blueprint. This is so regardless of whether they are plants, animals, or fungi, whether they are short- or long-lived, and whether they reproduce sexually or clonally. Therefore, to the extent that restoration deals with living organisms, genetics are part of the picture. Although the basic principles underlying restoration genetics may be familiar, to date surprisingly little attention has been devoted to genetic considerations in restoration practice. The purpose of this Restoration Science and Policy Paper is to outline some considerations that restoration designers and managers should be aware of, and to identify more detailed resources that may be useful in practice.

Wolves adapted to cold climates and warm climates.


The Aquatic ecosystems the ecosystem found in a body of water. It encompasses aquatic flora, fauna and water properties, as well. There are two main of aquatic ecosystem Marine and Freshwater. Contrary to the Marine ecosystems, the freshwater ecosystem covers only 0.8% of Earth's surface and contains 0.009% of the total water. Mountain land provides a scattered and diverse array of habitats where a large number of animals and plants can be found. At the higher altitudes, the harsh environmental conditions normally prevail, and only the treeless alpine vegetation can survive. The animals that live there have thick fur coats for prevention from cold and hibernation in the winter months. Lower slopes are commonly covered with coniferous forests. Desert ecosystems are located in regions that receive an annual rainfall less than 25. They occupy about 17 percent of all the land on our planet. Marine ecosystems are the biggest ecosystems, which cover around 71% of Earth's surface and contain 97% of out planet's water. Water in Marine ecosystems features in high amounts minerals and salts dissolved in them.

1.) The worm ate the dead leafs so it is a decomposer.

2.) The Caterpillar at the leaf so its a consumer.

3.) All the sea life was an ecosystem.

4.) Some animals produce there own food so they don't have to hunt for food.

5.) The top of the food chain is the lion.

6.) The animals were pertaining to life so they are biotic.

7.) Paramecium's are abiotic because they are living organisms.

8.) The men adapted to living at sea.

9.) Biotic factors are turtlehead flowers, water, trees, butterflires, competition, bacteria, carrying capacity, plaintain, ash, and the false foxglove.

10.) Abiotic factors are sunlight, air, climate, soil, water, rocks, and temperature.

11.) Sun-> Leaves-> Larvae-> Plankton-> Jellyfish-> Turtles-> Alligators

12.) Energy enters a food chain in the form of sunlight, and leaves the food chain in the form of heat.

13.) The arrows represents a food chain and how they connect.

14.) The food chain would not be right because a top predator wouldn't be full by eating a secondary consumer.

15.) Wetlands have important filtering capabilities for intercepting surface water runoff from higher dry land before the runoff reaches open water. In addition to improving water quality through filtering, some wetlands maintain stream flow during dry periods, and many replenish groundwater. Many Americans depend on groundwater for drinking.

16.) Wetlands provide flood protection by Wetlands function as natural sponges that trap and slowly release surface water, rain, snow melt, groundwater and flood waters.

17.) Wet lands protect the shore line from erosion by plants holding the soil in place with their roots, absorb the energy of waves, and break up the flow of stream or river currents.

18.) More than one-third of the United States' threatened and endangered species live only in wetlands, and nearly half use wetlands at some point in their lives. Many other animals and plants depend on wetlands for survival.

19.) We use a wealth of natural products from wetlands, including fish and shellfish, blueberries, cranberries, timber, and wild rice, as well as medicines that are derived from wetland soils and plants. Many of the nation's fishing and shell fishing industries harvest wetland- dependent species; the catch is valued at $15 billion a year.


Food Web



          Poor life choices can lead to a very painful life ahead. What you eat and how you feel affect you tremendously. When you eat healthy it helps your physical and mental health. when you eat fatty, sugary foods it is harder to fall asleep at night. The food we eat gives us the energy we need to go about the day. Healthy foods keep you awake but when you eat unhealthy foods they make you slower and tired. How much you exercise makes a big impact as well. The more you exercise the healthier you will be. Exercising can also help reduce stress. Many people think that exercise will drain your energy but exercise will actually give you more energy. Now a days, people are starting to smoke less tobacco and starting to smoke weed and pot and vapor. Vapor is staring to help the air not be so polluted but people are still smoking tobacco and weed and pot and other drugs which is making the air contaminated. If you inhale contaminated air it can be vital to your health. Some contaminates can be harmful to the lungs into other parts of the body but some are harmful even if they touch skin. Smoking regular cigarettes can lead to many harmful diseases. You could very possible get gum, esophagus, lung cancers. In some cases people have lost parts of their limps or voice boxes. Abusing drugs and alcohol can be harmful and you can get addicted. The average age for people to experience drugs and alcohol is only 13. Alcohol is the most abused "drug" in America. Many of the affects of drugs can be death. most people think that just trying it once won't get to addicted or wanting to have more but their wrong. After once it becomes twice than three times than an addiction.

Air pollution

Comment Stream

2 years ago

Wow, hating on the #paramecium. He's just a one-celled animal, cut him a break! :)