Events leading to the American Revolution and the impacts on Georgia
The American Revolution was a war between the 13 colonies and Great Britain. The 3 main causes of the war were that the British taxed the colonists unfairly because the British were in debt, then Britain took away land from the colonies when the British won in the French and Indian War, and finally the British forced the colonists to trade with no one else but Great Britain. Many laws, acts and fights took place before the American Revolution like the Boston Massacre, the Sugar Act, the Stamp Act, etc. we are going to talk about the events that led up to the revolution and the impacts of them to the colonies.
1763-Treaty of Paris
The Treaty of Paris was the treaty that ended the French and Indian War. This made the French lose all land in North America. Now that the french were out of the colonies, they felt as they did not need the British to protect them every second of their life. This made the colony be come closer to their British cousins making them think about if the being with the British was good or not. The British was in debt after this war because it was a expensive war causing them to tax the colonies later on.
1763-Proclamation of 1763 and King George the III
In 1763 after the French and Indian War, King George the 3rd (1760-1820) made a proclamation which made all land west of the Appalachian a forbidden zone for the colonists. They gave those lands to the Indians to try to settle things with the land the colonies have taken from the Indians. They also made them not able to trade with the Indians without a license. This made the colonist fierce because they had land west of the Appalachian and also they had a good trading system with the Indians. Georgia was not impacted much by this since they have not reached the Appalachian yet to settle in.
In 1764, British government made the Sugar Act because they were in debt from the French and Indian War. The colonists hated this law because it meant the British taxed everyone who bought molasses in the mainland colonies and the island colonies in the West Indies. The act also enforced them to have more custom officials . Custom officials were people who controlled the commodity and the taxes for the goods. This was not new in the British, they had many taxes for traded goods within the empire, enforcing the law was new. This law hurt the merchants and the smugglers. the colony most effected was New England especially Massachusetts, because most of their economy was from merchants and smuggling goods. New England colonies began to protest by bribing custom officials to not tax them. Georgia was not effected as much, because they did not trade was much as other colonies.
In 1765, the British government passed another law which made Georgians mad. the law was called the Stamp Act of 1765. The law made every printed materials and documents require a stamp. This included newspapers, shipping clearance, license, diplomas, calendars, and even playing cards. The people who sold the stamps were called the stamp agents or masters, these people were hated for their jobs more than anything. Georgia protested by the Commons House asking William Knox(agent for Georgia in London) to ask the Parliament to repeal the law. But Knox thought that the Parliaments had the right to tax them so the Common House fired him. This made Georgia have no agents in Europe for a couple years. In Massachusetts though people protested by marching in the streets and also a mob tore up the house of Lieutenant Governor Thomas Hutchinson.
In 1767, the British began to tax the colonists for glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea. Because the colonists disagreed with the stamp act the British government made the townshend act. The British thought the colonists would not complain because the taxes were indirect and they did not see them. Massachusetts responded by writing a letter to the Parliament and requesting them to take the law down but the Commons House of Assembly did not let them send the letter. In Georgia they had 2 meetings in Savannah. At the second one they made a resolution about the act. In South Carolina began to boycott the British goods. Georgians were still buying goods from the British so the South Carolinians voted not to trade with Georgia. Because of these protests the Parliament took down the law in 1770 except the tax on tea.
On March 5th, 1770 in Boston a mob of colonist gathered around about a dozen soldiers in front of the city`s customs house and began to throw snow balls and rocks at the soldiers because they were tired of the taxes and they were making fun of the redcoats(British Soldiers). Most of them were boys and men. When one of the soldiers got hit in the face and suffered an injury one of the soldiers opened fire then the others joined and kept firing until the mob disappeared. the shooting killed 5 and left 6 wounded. This was later in 1773 called the Boston Massacre. this made all of the colonies mad since the British soldiers opened fire into an unarmed crowd. Crispus Attucks was one of the people who died in the massacre he was a black man and the colonies believe that he is one of the most important black man who was involved.
May 1773-Tea Act and December 1773-Boston Tea Party
In May 1773, the Tea Act was passed this made the only company that can sell imported tea in the colonies to be the British`s East India Company. the company had a monopoly on tea. the company was losing money when the colonies boycotted tea during their protests over the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act. The tax that the company had to pay for cargo was removed so the company lowered the price but the colonists thought it was a trick to get them to pay taxes. New York responded by sending back all the tea ships that came to the ports, South Carolina confiscated the tea and later sold to help the revolutionary cause but the most major protest was the Boston Tea Party. in the Boston Tea Party the colonists disguised as Indians boarded the tea ships in the harbor and dumped the tea into the harbor. Georgia did not have a tea party since they had no tea ships coming into the ports.
1774-Coercive Acts(Intolerable Acts)
In 1774 after the Boston Tea Party King George was very angry at the colonies and saw the tea party was a criminal act because they destroyed property of the East Indies Company. he made laws to punish Boston and Massachusetts but it was more to show the power of the Parliament. The laws were called the Coercive laws in the Brutish but the colonists called them the Intolerable Acts. One of the laws made them close the Boston harbor until the colonists paid for the tea. Another law was that in the Massachusetts colony they cannot conduct a town meeting without the approval of the royal government and any British officials accused of a crime was tried in the Great Britain and last the colonists had to quarter British soldiers in their homes. Georgia hated the act even though the act was aimed to punish the Massachusetts colony. In August 1774 they had a meeting in Savannah to discuss the laws that the British have put into place. The Georgians thought that only the colonial Common House should be the only ones who taxes them because the citizens were represented there.
1775-Lexington and Concord
In April of 1775, British soldiers who were quartered in house in Boston secretly marched to Lexington to capture the ring leaders - John Hancock and Samuel Adams. The British soldiers were led by General Gage. But this was not very secret since spies and friends told the colonists about this plan and warned Lexington before the soldiers can reach them. The minutemen which were a militia who were ready in a minute were waiting for the British and one morning in April they faced off 240 British soldiers. There were only about 70 minutemen fighting. They both stood there and then finally one shot was shot this was the shot heard around the world. Although the British won this gave the colonist a boost of energy to fight for freedom. In Concord the militia were ready for them so the British retreated to Boston on the way back other militias shot from the trees and behind fences and kill and injured about 125 soldiers including officers.
1775-Second Continental Congress Meets Georgia's representatives to the meeting
In May of 1775, the second continental congress was met in Philadelphia. They encouraged the colonists to revolution and managed the effort to war. Georgia had not participated in the first continental congress meeting since Georgia did not chose to send any delegates to it. But this time the provincial congress elected three men which were Archibald Bulloch, Noble Wimberly Jones, and John Houston. The provincial congress did not have much power to do this so they hoped the Commons House will approve what they have done but James Wright thought the British would give Georgia consequences like they did to New England so he sent the three men home before the Commons House can vote if they send them or not. For that reason Georgia was the only colony to not have a delegate at the beginning of the second continental congress.
July 4th 1776-Declaration of Independence signed
Between the days of June 11th and 28th Thomas Jefferson drafted the document that would make America what it is now. Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence and finished on the 28th of June. The declaration was made because the colonists could no longer take the pain and taxes of the British so they made the declaration to separate from the British and have its own government and mainly to be independent. The Declaration of Independence was signed by 56 delegates from 13 colonies. The declaration was ordered by congress to be printed on July 4th which is now known as Independence day. But to get the freedom and independence from Great Britain they would have to go against them in war. In that time period Great Britain was the strongest country in world with the most power and soldiers than any country at that time.