Earth, Moon, and Sun
by: Maggie Willkomm
Fun Facts about the MOON!!
- The average distance from the Moon to the Earth is 238857 miles.
- The Moon orbits the Earth every 27.3 days.
- The first person to set foot on the Moon was Neil Armstrong.
- A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon.
Section 1: Earth in Space
how does earth move in space?
The Earth moves in Space in its own special way, rotation and revolution.
Rotation- The imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and the North and South poles is Earth's axis. While the Earth's axis is spinning, it's also rotating. It takes the Earth about 24 hours to rotate, just once!
Revolution- The movement of one object around another is revolution. A year is one complete revolution of Earth around the sun. Earth follows a orbit, as it revolves around the sun.
Ancient Egyptians used a calender, a system of organizing time that defines the begging, length, and divisions of a year, to find how many days are in a year. The results of that calender, were 365 days in a year.
what causes the cycle of seasons on earth?
The four distinct seasons are winter, spring, summer, and autumn.
How Sunlight Hits Earth- Sunlight hits Earth's surface mostly near the equator. Sunlight arrives at a steep angle. It is warmer near the equator than the poles, for that reason.
Earth's Tilted Axis- Earth has seasons because its axis is tilted as it revolves around the sun. As Earth revolves around the sun, the north end of its axis is tilted away from the sun for part of the year and toward the sun for part of the year. Summer and winter are caused by Earth's tilt as it revolves around the sun.
section 2: Gravity and motion
Solstice- The sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the equator twice each year. Each of these days, when the sun is farthest north or south of the equator, is known as a solstice.
Equinoxes- Halfway between the solstices, neither hemisphere is tilted toward or away from the sun. This occurs twice a year, when the noon sun is directly overhead at the equator. Each and every day is known as an equinox. That means "equal night".
what determines the strength of the force of gravity between two objects?
The strength of the force of gravity between two objects depends in two factors, masses of the objects and distance between them.
Mass- the amount of matter in an object.
Distance- an amount of space between two things or people.
The law of universal gravitational is when all the objects around you, including Earth, are pulling on you, just as you are pulling on them.
What two factors combine to keep the moon and earth in orbit?
Two factors- inertia and gravity- combine to keep Earth in orbit around the sun and the moon in orbit around earth.
Inertia- the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.
Gravity- attracts all objects toward each-other
Section 3: Phases, Eclipses, and Tides
What causes the phases of the moon?
The phase of the moon you see depends on how much of the sunlit side of the moon faces Earth.
The changing relative positions of the moon, Earth, and sun cause the phases of the moon, eclipses, and tides.
Phase- the different shapes of the moon you see from Earth.
What are solar and lunar eclipses?
When the moon's shadow hits Earth or Earth's shadow hits the moon, an eclipse occurs.
Solar eclipse- occurs when a new moon blocks your view of the sun.
Lunar eclipse- occurs at a full moon when Earth is directly between the moon and the sun.
What causes the tides?
Tides are caused mainly by differences in how much the moon's gravity pulls on different parts of Earth.
Tides- the rise and fall of ocean water that occurs every 12.5 hours or so.
Section 4: Earth's moon
What features are found on the moon's surface?
Features on the moon's surface include maria, craters, and highlands.
Maria- The moon's surface has dark, flat areas, which Galileo called Maria.
Craters- Galileo saw that the moon's surface is marked by large round pits.
what are some characteristics of the moon?
The moon is dry and airless. Compared to Earth, the moon is small and has large variations in its surface temperature.
The moon is 3,476 kilometers in diameter, a little less than the distance across the United States.
Temperatures range from a torrid 130°C in direct sunlight to a frigid -180°C at night.
The moon has no liquid water.
How did the moon form?
Scientists theorize that a planet-sized object collided with Earth to form the moon. Material from the object and Earth's outer layers was ejected into orbit around Earth, where it formed a ring. Gravity caused this material to combine to form the MOON!