importance and ways to reduce frictional force

The effect of frictional properties on cavity formation was studied. Until now, most of the researchers have proposed various correlations to predict the cavity size neglecting the effect of stresses on cavity formation. In the present study, the effect of stresses has been considered along with pressure and bed weight terms. These three forces are expressed in mathematical form and solved analytically for one-dimensional case using a force balance approach. Based on the force balance, the cavity size is predicted.

  • Dry friction resists relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is subdivided into static friction ("stiction") between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction between moving surfaces.
  • Fluid friction describes the friction between layers of a viscous fluid that are moving relative to each other.
  • Lubricated friction is a case of fluid friction where a fluid separates two solid surfaces.
  • Skin friction is a component of drag, the force resisting the motion of a fluid across the surface of a body.

Internal friction is the force resisting motion between the elements making up a solid material while it undergoes deformation

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