Textbook Glossary

TB pg. 640

Metaphors - Describe one thing as if it were something else. Her eyes were saucers, wide with expectation.
Personification - Gives human qualities to something nonhuman. The clarinets sang.
Similies - Use like or as to compare two unlike things. The icy water was like stinging bees.
Alliteration - The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words as in feathered friend.
Repetition - The repeated use of a sound, word, or phrase.
Assonance - The repetition of vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds as in fade and hay.
Consonance - The repetition of final consonant sounds in stressed syllables with different vowel sounds as in end and hand.
Onomatopoeia - The use of words that imitate sounds such as Pow!
Rhyme - The repetition of sounds at the end of words -- thin skin.
Rhythm - The pattern of strong and weak beats, as well as pauses, in a poem. Rhythm in music and in poetry are similar.

TB pg. 641

Lines - The basic structural component of a poem.
Stanzas - One or more lines that make up the basic units of a poem separated by spacing.
Meter - The measured arrangement of words in poetry, as by rhythm or the number of syllables in a line.
Rhyme Scheme - The pattern of rhyming lines in a rhyming poem or in a song.

TB pg. 642

Lyric Poetry - Expresses the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker, often in very musical verse. The speaker and the poet are not always the same person. Lyric poetry is a broad category that includes many specific types of poems, such as sonnets, odes, and elegies.
Sonnets - Fourteen-line poems with a formal tone that follow a specific rhyme scheme. Sonnets' subjects often vary, but the purpose of a sonnet is to praise.
Odes - Poems with a formal tone, written for the single purpose of celebrating or honoring a person, object, or idea.
Elegies - Formal poems that reflect on death or other solemn, serious themes. The structure of elegies varies considerably.
Narrative Poetry - Tells a story in verse. Narrative poems have elements like those in a short story, such as setting, plot, and characters. The category of narrative poetry includes narrower classifications, such as epics and ballads.
Epics - Long, serious poems that tell the story of a heroic figure.
Ballads - Tells a story similar to a folk tale or legend that often has a repeated refrain. They are about love and are usually sung. It is a song in poetic form.
Free Verse Poetry - Defined by its lack of strict structure, it has no regular meter, no intentional rhyme, no fixed line length, and no specific stanza pattern. Instead, the poet chooses a loose structure that fits the poem.
Limericks - Humorous five-line poems with a specific rhythmic pattern and an aabba rhyme scheme.
Concrete Poem - The words are arranged on the page to form a shape that suggests the topic or ideas in the poem. Concrete poems often have a lighthearted or humorous tone. Their structure is loose, without regular meter, though they may rhyme.

Haikus - Short, unrhymed poems, often about nature. Its tone is often thoughtful, but it can be playful as well.