The Creek Civilization
Created By: Tate and Sabrina
The Creek civilization started in the southern part of North America, where Alabama and Georgia are now located. They were in the Southeastern part of North America which is a warm and humid area. They lived close to the Gulf of Mexico, and the Appalachian Mountains ran close to their territory.
-Creek Indians society (Native Americans) contained an unknown number of leaders because each village had a civil, religious and war chiefs of various ranks. Leaders wielded authority as long as they could persuade others to agree with their decisions. As a result, leadership positions frequently changed hands. The most important Creek leader was the mico or village chief. In addition to providing domestic leadership, micos served as diplomatic representatives. They welcomed traders, diplomats, and other sojourners into the village, served as representatives at treaty negotiations, and led warriors into battle. They redistributed scarce resources and daily necessities, demonstrated their bravery in warfare, forged trade relationships, arranged diplomatic alliances, and wielded powerful sacred items. In this way Creek micos demonstrated that they deserved their positions of power.
-One of the earliest known leader of the Creek tribe was Brims, a village chief where in the early eighteenth century he became the most prominent leader of the Creek by establishing and securing trade with foreign countries.
War and Conflict:
The Creek War (1813-1814) began as a civil war until U.S. forces began to get involved by attacking a Creek settlement at the Battle of Burnt Corn. This was was occurring at the same as the war of 1812, and the British and Red Stick forces saw each other as allies.
The Creek's main enemy ended up being the United States forces, as they got involved in the war of 1812 with the British on their side.
The Creek War ended when Andrew Jackson rallied forces with Cherokees and defeated the Creek at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
Early interaction between Creeks and the colonists consisted of an exchange of slaves and deer skins for foreign products like textiles and kettles. Soon after the establishment of South Carolina in 1670, the Creeks set up a brisk business capturing and selling Florida Indians for their new neighbors. By 1715 this segment of the trade had nearly disappeared for lack of supply and demand. Deer skins then became the main currency. By the 1730s, tens of thousands of skins were leaving the port of Charleston, South Carolina, each year, bound for English factories, where they were cut into breeches, stretched into book covers, and sewn into gloves. In Creek towns the profits from the trade included cloth, kettles, guns, and rum. The trade also encouraged closer cultural ties between natives and newcomers. Some Georgia traders took up residence among the Creeks, settling in towns on the Chattahoochee, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. They married Creek women and had children, some of whom later became important Creek leaders, such as Alexander McGillivray and William McIntosh. They, along with others, encouraged Georgia's native peoples to join the plantation economy spreading across the South.
Creek men were hunters and sometimes went to war to protect their families. Creek women were farmers and did most of the child care and cooking. Both genders took part in storytelling, artwork and music, and traditional medicine.
Creek men wore breech cloths and leather leggings. Creek women wore wrap-around skirts and mantles made of deerskin or woven fiber. Creek men did not originally wear shirts, but both genders wore cloaks in cold weather.
The Creeks believed in a monotheistic God known as ¨the One¨. They were considered to be protestant, because this was before the Europeans colonized America.
The Creeks were a farming culture, in which the women farmed crops such as corn, beans and squash. They also hunted small game animals such as rabbits and birds while also killing other meats like deer and turkey.