The freedom to think or act without being limited by unnecessary froce
Rachel Kim, Kaylaah Tisdale
The 13th Amendment, passed by the Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified by the states on December 6, 1865, formally abolished slavery in the United States. This amendment is strongly related to liberty by allowing African Americans to be officially free and not be controlled or restricted.
The Freedmen's Bureau was a federal agency, which was established by Congress on March 3, 1865. It was set up to help former black slaves and poor whites in the South in the aftermath of the Civil War. Liberty played apart in this agency because it helped freed slaves and poor whites freely have opportunities to settle down by providing food, shelter, and education.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was enacted on April 9 to overturn black code and give legal rights to freedmen. This affirmed that all citizens were equally protected by the law. Liberty played a significant role in this act because it allowed freedmen be respected as citizens and freely had legal rights.
This amendment gave former enslaved people national citizenship and forbade the states to restrict the basic rights of citizens. This amendment is strongly related to liberty because it gave them rights to freely act as citizens.
The 15th Amendment was passed by Congress on February 26, 1869 and gave black men the right to vote. It prohibited states from denying voting rights to citizens based on race, color, or slavery. This is greatly related to liberty because the 15 amendment gave freedom of voting and took the restriction away from African Americans who at first could not vote because of the color and slavery.
The Homestead Act was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862. It gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $10. Liberty is related to this act by giving settlers the freedom to farm 160 acres of public land.
Industrialism: Labor Unions
AFL & Knights of Labor & IWW
American Federation of Labor (AFL) was a national labor organization, founded on December 8,1886, that consisted mainly of skilled workers and focused on higher wages and shorter workdays.
Knights of Labor was a labor union, founded in 1869, that included workers of any trade, skilled or unskilled. The union wanted 8 working hours per day, equal pay for men and women, and an end to child labor. They used strikes and boycotts.
Industrial workers of the World (IWW) was a labor organization, founded by representatives of 43 groups on June 27, 1905. The union opposed the AFL’s acceptance of capitalism and its refusal to include unskilled workers in craft unions.
These labor unions clearly show the connection with liberty because they were organizations that fought for the workers' freedom to have human rights by claiming that they are not machines.
The Progressive Era
National Child Labor
As industrialization moved workers from farms and home workshops into urban areas and factory work, children were often preferred, because factory owners viewed them as more manageable, cheaper, and less likely to strike. To challenge child labor, the National Child Labor was founded in 1904 and incorporated by an Act of Congress in 1907 with the mission of promoting the rights, dignity, well-being and education of children and youth. Liberty is clearly shown through the National Child Labor because the committee led children freely act instead of being forced to do things what they don't want to do.
NAWSA & NAACP
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), founded in 1890, was the result of a merger between two rival factions - the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA). NAWSA combined both groups' techniques, securing the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920 through a series of well-orchestrated state campaigns under the dynamic direction. The association put a lot of efforts to help women win the right to vote.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was formed on February 12, 1909. Its mission was to ensure the political, educational, social and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination.
These two associations are strongly related to liberty because they helped women and African Americans to gain and freely enjoy the political, educational, social and economic equality rights.
Pure Food and Drug Act
The Pure Food and Drug Act was signed on June 30, 1906, to forbid the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs. It also gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. This act is also related to liberty because it allowed people to have the freedom of eating safe foods.
The 17th Amendment was passed on May 13, 1912 to allow American voters to directly elect the United States senators. This constitutional amendment allowed people to have the liberty to vote for who they want to represent them.
The 19th Amendment was passed on August 18, 1920 and granted women the right to vote. Before this amendment, women were not able to vote. Therefore, this amendment prohibited any American citizens from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex. The amendment powerfully shows the connection to liberty by allowing women to freely vote.
Open Door Policy
The Open Door Policy is the policy, issued in 1899, that foreign nations must allow free trade in China on an equal basis. It was an American solution to the maneuvering among all countries to secure China. It kept China be an open market for all to avoid a conflict over China. This policy is related to liberty because it allowed all the foreign nations to freely trade in China and gave China the freedom of having the opportunities to increase their economy.
The Great Migration was the mass movement of millions of African Americans from the rural South to cities in the North and Midwest in order to take jobs in industry beginning during World War I. This clearly shows liberty because millions of African Americans had freedom to experience many opportunities to gain money and to be respected as the United States workers.
The United States Food Administration was created on August 10, 1917 and was headed by Herbert Hoover. This administration was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military. This played a significant role in liberty because it tried soldiers to have freedom of enjoying enough foods to fight.
The Harlem Renaissance was the name given to the cultural, social, and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem between the end of World War I and the middle of the 1930s. During this period, Harlem was a cultural center, drawing black writers, artists, musicians, photographers, poets, and scholars. This is related to liberty because this gave many African American artists to have freedom of enjoying the opportunities to introduce their cultures.