Copernicus: Nicolai Copernicus (1473-1543) changed our understanding of astronomy when he proposed that the sun, not Earth, was the center of the solar system.
We have seasons because because the earth is tilted as it makes its yearly journey around the sun.
During the winter, the sun's rays hit the Earth at a shallow angle. These rays are more spread out, which minimizes the amount of energy that hits any given spot
The cause of an eclipse of the Moon is different from the cause of the Moon’s phases because Moon phases are the result of the Moon's own shadow, while eclipses of the Moon are caused by the earth's shadow across the Moon.
We have day and night because the Earth rotates. It spins on its axis, which is an imaginary line passing through the North and South Poles.
Equinox:The time or day at which the sun crosses the celestial equator. This happens twice a year. Solstice:The time of the year when the summer solstice and the winter solstice, when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at noon, marked by the longest and shortest days.