Human Developmental Stages
Four theorists came up with different theories explaining different parts of the human developmental stages of life.
The following came up with theories for specific areas of development:
1. Jean Piaget: Four stages of cognitive development.
2. Mary Ainsworth: Pyschosocial Development- Styles of attachment.
3. Eric Erikson: Pyschosocial Development- Stages of emotional development.
4. Lawrence Kohlberg: Moral Development
Four Stages of Cognitive Development
After studying infants and children through adulthood, Piaget came up with four stages of cognitive development, changing the way psychology looked at the way children think.
The four stages of cognitive development:
1. Sensorimotor: Occurs from birth to 2 years of age.
2. Preoperational: Occurs from 2 to 7 years of age.
3. Concrete Operations: Occurs from 7 to 12 years of age.
4. Formal Operations: Occurs from 12 years of age to adulthood.
Mary Ainsworth designed an experiment to observe the attachment of an infant to the infants caregiver. This experiment was known as the "Strange Situation."
After conducting the experiment, Ainsworth came up with four attachment styles:
8 Psychosocial Stages of Development
Erikson was a Psychodynamic theorist who stressed the need of social relationships during personality development. He believed all 8 stages occurred as a crisis in different stages of life.
8 Psychosocial Stages of Development:
1. Infant: Birth to 1 year old. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Toddler: 1 to 3 years old. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
3. Preschool Age: 3 to 5 years old. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Elementary School Age: 5 to 12 years. Industry vs. Inferiority.
5. Adolescence: 13 to early twenties. Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Early Adulthood: Twenties and thirties. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Middle Adulthood: Forties and fifties. Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Late Adulthood: Sixties and beyond. Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Three Levels of Morality