Review Project

Convection Currents in the Ocean (Rocio):

El Niño y La Niña:

A special current, labeled El Niño y La Niña, are caused when changing wind patterns are displaced warm and cool water in the equatorial Pacific. During either of these occurrences the replacement of cool and warm water lead to air temperature changes and humidity differences. This changes weather patterns by steering storms and rainfall to new places. This affects plate life and drought areas.


An ocean gyre is a large system of curricular ocean currents formed by global winds forces created by Earth’s rotation.Ocean gyres help drive the Ocean Conveyor Belt. The Ocean Conveyor Belt circulates ocean water around the entire planet. It is also known as thermohaline circulation. The ocean conveyor belt is essential for regulating the temperature and nutrient flow throughout the ocean.

There are three major types of ocean gyres: tropical, subtropical, and subpolar.

~Subpolar gyres form in the polar regions of the planet. They sit beneath an area of low atmospheric pressure. Wind drives the currents in subpolar gyres away from coastal areas. These surface currents are replaced by cold, nutrient-rich water in a process called upwelling.

~ Tropical gyres form near the Equator. Tropical gyres tend to flow in a more east-west (instead of circular) pattern.

~Most of the world’s major gyres are subtropical gyres. These form between the polar and equatorial regions of Earth. Subtropical gyres circle areas beneath regions of high atmospheric pressure. These are placid ocean areas thousands of kilometers in diameter. Unlike coastal zones, these central regions are relatively stable. The ocean water generally stays in one place while the currents of the gyre circulate around it.

Salt and Temperature on the ocean surface and bottom:

The more salt in the ocean, the denser the seawater. The ocean surface tends to have less salt than compared to the ocean bottom. The ocean bottom has more salt and is why it is denser and is at the bottom. The ocean surface has less salt so it is less dense and sits at the top. Sea surface temperatures have a large influence on climate and weather. This warming is a hallmark of the climate pattern El Niño, which changes rainfall patterns around the globe, causing heavy rainfall in the southern United States and severe drought in Australia, Indonesia, and southern Asia.No matter how warm the surface of the ocean gets, the ocean's huge volume and deep basins keep temperatures at the bottom of the ocean at only slightly above freezing.

Convection Currents in the atmosphere (Cade Baridon):

Coriolis effect:

If the earth did not rotate, hot and cool air would rotate in a simple back and forth pattern, but because the earth rotates, the circulating wind is deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere, and to the left in the southern hemisphere. This creates curved paths of wind.

Trade winds / Westerlies:

Trade winds are prevailing winds that meet at the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (doldrums). Westerlies are the winds that continue from the equator to the poles.

Easterlies/ Doldrums:

Easterlies are the dry, cold prevailing winds that blow from the high-pressure areas of the polar highs at the north and south poles towards low-pressure areas within the Westerlies at high latitudes. The doldrums are a low-pressure area around the equator where the prevailing winds are calm.

Convection cells:

The colder, denser part of the water goes under the the warmer, less-dense water, and this causes the warmer water to rise. Such movement is called convection, and the moving body of water is referred to as a convection cell.

Jet stream:

Jet streams are fast flowing, relatively narrow air currents found in the atmosphere around 10 kilometers above the surface of the Earth. when they do not flow as fast, they bend and do not flow as straight.

Air Masses/Fronts (Jenna):

Air Mass is an extremely large body of air, its properties of temperature and moisture contents. They are fairly similar to any horizontal direction, at any given time.

Types of Air

-Continental Air is dry(c)

-Maritime Air is wet(m)

-Tropical Air is hot(T)

-Polar Air is cold(P)

Types of Air Masses





Fronts are boundaries between Air Masses, this is where precipitation occurs. There are four different types of Fronts…

Types of Fronts

-Warm Front- These fronts generally move from the southwest to the northeast. Defined as the transition zone where a warm air mass is replacing a cold air mass. When a warm front passes through, the air becomes much warmer and more humid than it was before.

-Cold Front-These fronts generally move from the northwest to the southeast. Is a transition zone where cold air masses are replacing warmer air masses. When a cold front passes through temperature can drop more than 15 degrees within the first hour.

-Stationary Front-This is when a warm or cold front stops moving. Once this boundary starts its forward motion , it once again becomes a warm front or cold front.

-Occluded Front-A developing cyclone typically has to come before a warm front and a faster moving cold front.

Local Wind/Pressure (Caleb Cantway):

Sea breeze and land breeze:

Sea breezes occur during the day when the Land Is much warmer than the sea due to the sea being harder to heat then the sand/land Due to water density. This causes convection and cool wind to blow upon the beach. This also happens at night as land breezes, but vice versa with the cool wind coming from the land out to sea.

Low and high pressure:

The pressure of the wind Causes the weather patterns and Wind patterns. If the pressure is high it causes The area to expand in an anticyclonic pattern as depicted above.The opposite is in effect for low pressure which forms Cyclonic wind patterns also depicted above.pattern.Cyclonic Wind patterns are when wind is blowing together in a circular motion.Anticyclonic Wind patterns are when wind is blowing away from a central point in a circular