BY: Samantha Ramirez
- The Significance of Jerusalem to the Byzantines
It was really important to the Byzantines that's what made them to look away from the pope in rome and put more importance to Patriarch in Constantinople." The council of Chalcedon had established five patriarchs, church officials in a particular region: Antioch, Alexandria, Rome, and later Jerusalem and Constatinople."It then slowly increased in power also was seen as more important than the other eastern patriarchs of Jerusalem, Antioch,and Alexandria. Later on "The Byzantine church did continue to see itself as a role of protecting Christians living or making pilgrimages to the Orient. There were close contacts with the other Patriarchs in Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria and other orthodox churches in the Levant. "
- Impact of the Crusades
In the 11th century the church had lost some prestige. "A Turkish nomadic people, called the Seljuks, migrated from the central steppes. They adopted Islam as early as the 10th century and rapidly absorbed Islamic culture." Then, Baghdad fell to them in 1055 although they maintained the Abassid Caliph as merely a symbolic power. Around 1070, led by Alp Arslan, they conquered Syria and Jerusalem. Byzantium was not as concerned for religious sites such as the Church of the Holy Sepucher in Jerusalem as they were for the threat of being overcome by this new force. After a Seljuk army pushed forward to Anatolia and destroyed the Byzantine forces in the battle of Manzikert in 1071 where the emperor was taken prisoner, the emperor was upset at having to fight this battle not with a well-trained military but with mercenaries hastily put together. But Although the Seljuks were not a direct threat, the emperor felt the need to call for assistance."This call for help marked the beginning of the end of its power. By 1204 during the Fourth Crusade, Constantinople will be taken over by western Crusaders. Although a dynasty eventually returns, the city will fall to a new power, the Ottoman Turks in 1453."
-Byzantines Perspective of other groups
"The Byzantines considered themselves Romans, and their emperor considered himself a Roman ruler, successor and heir to the Roman Caesars."They preferred to call themselves, in Greek, romioi(Christian Greek village with Roman citizenship).
Nationalism is reflected in literature, particularly in songs and poems as Akritias, where border towns (called Akritias fighters), took pride in defending their country against invaders. Basically, they thought that were the superiors of all groups.