Moon Phases

Waxing Moon: The moon at any time after a new moon and before a full moon.

Waning Moon: The moon at any time after full moon and before a new moon.

Gibbous Moon: The moon seen with more than half but not all of the moon illuminated.

Crescent Moon: A moon that is part way between a halfmoon and a new moon, or between a newmoon and a half moon.

The Lunar Cycle is approximately 29.5 days.

When a moon is waxing, it appears to become more and more illuminated as the phase continues and becomes more illuminated.

When a moon is waning, the illimuntation on the moon appears to diminish as the phase will soon start over again.

Earth's Seasons/Eclipses

Nicolai Copernicus changed our understanding of astronomy when he proposed that the sun, not Earth, was the center of the solar system.

We have seasons because the earth is tilted as it makes its yearly journey around the sun. This means that the Earth is always "pointing" to one side as it goes around the Sun.

During the winter, the sun's rays hit the Earth at a shallow angle. These rays are more spread out, which minimizes the amount of energy that hits any given spot.

Moon phases are the result of the Moon's own shadow.

When the shadow of Earth moves across the Moon, we call it a lunar eclipse. When the Moon moves between Earth and the Sun, it casts a small shadow on Earth, and people inside that shadow see a solar eclipse.

Earth rotates on its axis, and the fact that this axis is tilted.
Earth’s rotation occurs from west to east, which is why the Sun always appears to be rising on the eastern horizon and setting on the western.

The time or date (twice each year) at which the sun crosses the celestial equator.

Either of the two times in the year, the summer solstice and the winter solstice, when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at noon.

Plate Tectonics

Alfred Wegener was a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist. He proposed that the continents had once been joined, and over time had drifted apart.

coming closer together.

Tending to be different or develop in different directions.

Transform Boundary
Two tectonic plates that slide alongside each other.

Large convection currents in the aesthenosphere transfer heat to the surface, where plumes of less dense magma break apart the plates at the spreading centers, creating divergent plate boundaries.

Rift Zone
Feature of some volcanoes, especially shield volcanoes, in which a linear series of fissures in the volcanic edifice allows lava to be erupted from the volcano's flank instead of from its summit.

Subduction Zone
Biggest smash-up on Earth, marking the collision between two of the planet's tectonic plates, the pieces of crust that slowly move across the surface over millions of years

Juan De Fuca plate.

The Juan De Fuca changes the sea floor by spreading it out and creating new sea floor. That also makes the chance of earthquakes slimmer and slimmer, therefore decreasing the amount of earthquakes in the cascade area.

The Channeled Scabland was created when the Ice Age floods accelerated across the tilted surface of the Palouse slope, causing massive erosion. Much of the eroded sediment was carried all the way to the Pacific Ocean.

Rocks & Roles
#rocksandroles #tackkthursday #throwbackthursday

sedimentary rock
rocks that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
ex: sandstone

metamorphic rock
rock that was once one form of rockbut has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase.
ex: gniess

igneous rock
rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.
ex: obsidian

system or formation of layers, classes, or categories.

Rock layers tend to be older since more sediment has turned into rock over time. That is why the older rock layers are on the bottom of younger rock layers.

When the asteroid landed on earth and wiped out the dinosaurs the layers of rock in that area of land could have moved around due to the enormous weight and force of the rock.

They can create or add on to land. Specifically coral reefs are created by the living organism "coral". Over thousands to millions of years, they form massive structures of limestone that alter the shoreline of continents.


Cell: the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism.

Animal cells do not have a cell wall or chloroplasts but plant cells do. Animal cells are round and irregular in shape while plant cells have fixed, rectangular shapes.

Vacuole: stores water in the cell.
Chloroplast: conducts photosynthesis.
Cell Wall: provides structure for the cell.

Muscle Cell: producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion.

Nerve Cells: Neurons are highly specialised to transmit messages from one part of your body to another.

Bone Cell: remodeling of the bone through growths of new arms on the cell.

Cells are the basic structure of life which make up tissues in which make up organs then make up organ systems which help carry out life's basic tasks.

Components of the digestive system: mouth, stomach, esophagus, small intestine, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, colon, rectum, anus.
Function: the digestive system is uniquely constructed to perform its specialized function of turning food into the energy you need to survive and packaging the residue for waste disposal.

Components of the circulatory system: heart, veins, blood, arteries, capalaries.
Function: delivery of oxygen, nutrient molecules, and hormones and the removal of carbon dioxide, ammonia and other metabolic wastes.

Components of the respiratory system: nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, diaphragm and intercostal muscles
Function: to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body.

It looks like a cell, but it functions on its own like it is a single organism

#heredity #tackkthursday #throwbackthursday

Both parents have one big G and one little g which makes them heterozygus.

There is a 3/4 chance of having a green flower and a 1/4 chance of having a yellow flower.

Two outcomes.

Two outcomes.

Sexual reproduction provides more diversity because the sperm and egg that are produced contain different combinations of genes than the parent organisms. Asexual reproduction, on the other hand, does not need sperm and eggs since one organism splits into two organisms that have the same combination of genes.

adaption: change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.

evolution: process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.

species: group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.

gene: unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.

genetic: of or relating to genes or heredity.

sexual reproduction: the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types.

asexual reproduction: mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only.

Partly determine organisms' physical form and function. Helps organisms cope with current environmental variability. Reduces potentially deleterious effects of breeding among close relatives. Primary basis for adaptation to future environmental uncertainty.



Asexual and Sexual Reproduction


Tropical Rain Forest
Jungle, contains the most species of any other ecosystem.

Open, widely spaced trees.

Dry, sparce vegetation; scattered grasses.

Rich soil; tall dense grasses

Open; wind swept; dry; ground always frozen.

decomposer: The fungus is a decomposer that breaks down dead organisms to use as nutrients.

A human is a consumer, as it consumes other organisms for energy.

The monkey lives in a tropical rain forest ecosystem because there are many tree for it to climb.

producer: The triceratops ate the green producer and got energy the plant had stored it itself.

food chain: A lion would be considered higher on the food chain than a house cat.

biotic: The human being used to be biotic until he got hit by a car and died.

abiotic: air is an abiotic because it is not alive, but it is part of an ecosystem.

adaption: the bear with short fur adapted to the harsh cold weather by growing his fur out.

biotic examples: grass, fungi.

abiotic examples: rocks, air.

producer in wetland ecosystem: plants
primary: foxes, hawks & owls, and snakes.
secondary: frog, bird.
tertiary: fish, turtle.
quarternary: bugs.
top predator: alligator.

12. Energy enters a food chain in the form of sunlight, and leaves the food chain in theform of heat.

13. How food is passed through the food chain.

14. Some of the consumers would not get food and would perish as well.

15. wetlands provide natural water quality, flood protection etc.

16. They act as natural sponges.

17. Wetland plants hold the soil in place with their roots, absorb the energy of waves, and break up the flow of stream or river currents.

18. The wetlands coast provide habitat for many sea life animals, and the inland wetlands provide habitat for many land mammals.

19. The wetlands are provide natural products and recreation.

food web

energy flow through ecosystem

cellular respiration