The Orders in Council, Embargo , War Hawks and Hartford Convention

Neutrality, manufacturing, and the end of the federalists

The Orders-in-Council were the laws passed by the British government in 1807 that directly led to the war of 1812. They permitted the imprisonment of sailors and prohibited neutral ships from traveling to ports where the British were excluded unless they first went to the British to trade. Also, any American ship traveling to France was to be inspected by the British. About 6000 American sailors were kidnapped and the effect of these acts produced a spur of passion for the war. In response to the impressment by the British, Jefferson passed the Embargo, which forbade exports to any nation. This act was opposed by New England merchants and ships and harbors sat unused while Southern crops piled up and smuggling returned to the country. The War Hawks were Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism and wanted to seize British land in North America and destroy Native American resistance. The main War Hawks were Henry Clay and John Calhoun. In October 1814, Massachusetts Federalists, opposing President Madison and the war, called for a convention to be held in Hartford, Connecticut. Twenty-six Representatives from the New England states attended. Many contemplated secession and a separate peace with Britain. The Hartford Convention was an example of the growing issue of Sectionalism and was another event in the approaching end of the Federalist Party.

This political cartoon , “Ograbme” ( which is embargo backwards) , was an anti-Jeffersonian cartoon in response to the Embargo Act, which sought to punish Great Britain and France for seizing cargo and impressing men into their navies and is a representation of a criticism of the act. As part of the Embargo Act, American ships bound for foreign trade were banned from leaving the ports; this also created an unwanted side-affect which banned American exploration. Additionally, the  Embargo Act helped Great Britain and France because it removed the Americans as opposition in the sale of goods to South America. With its intent be to punish Britain and France for interfering with American shipping, the Embargo Act actually harmed American merchants.

The Secret Journal of the Hartford Convention published in 1823.

The Hartford Convention's proposed several amendments to the U.S. Constitution. These attempted to combat the Republican policies.

1. Prohibiting any trade embargo over 60 years

2. Requiring two thirds of Congressional majority for declaration of war, admission of a state, and foreign commerce.

3. Removing the three fifths representation in the South

4. Limiting future presidents to a single term

5. Requiring the president to be from a different state than his predecessor


"Thomas Jefferson." A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2014.

"Political Cartoon: Ograbme, or the American Snapping Turtle." Teachers Pay Teachers. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2014.

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