History and People of
By: Nidhi K., Erin X., Ty J., Mac A., and Ishaan J.
Language and Economic Progression:
Bantu- Bantu is a major branch of the Niger-Congo language that is spoken by most populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. There are about 650 Bantu languages. One of the greatest human migrations in history, the Bantu migration, began after the Cultural Revolution. It was where the Bantu people moved south and east from their Central African homeland, bringing their cultural traits and skills. They spread their culture all across the continent.
Swahili- The Swahili language, is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people. It is a language that was adopted as a common language by people of different natives . of the African Great Lakes region and other parts of Southeast Africa, including Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Mozambique and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Jomo Kenyatta- Jomo Kenyatta was the leader of Kenya from in 1963 to his death in 1978, serving first as Prime Minister and then as President. He is considered the founding father of the Kenyan nation. He also encouraged domestic policies which led to economic growth and modernization.
Transportation Corridors- A transportation corridor is a linear track of land that contains lines of transportation like highways, railroads, or canals. Usually, new transport lines are built alongside existing ones to minimize pollution. As Africa slowly started to modernize, they built transportation corridors, which helped them move along on other ways than walking.
Slave Trade and Segregation:
Slave Trade- Slave trade occurs when Europeans trade African slaves for goods and other valuable resources. Many of the slaves suffered from diseases or malnutrition after they were traded and put on ships. This slave trade lasted from the 1500's to the mid-1800's. During that time, more than 12 million Africans were enslaved and shipped to the Western Hemisphere.
Incentive- Profit is an incentive, or a motivating reason, of slavery. Slaves were often bought by Europeans so they could have a cheap labor source. Because plantation owners didn't have to pay their slaves, they made more money.
Apartheid- Apartheid is a system of discrimination, or segregation in South Africa enforced through the government from 1948- 1998. The Dutch and British colonists separated land that was healthy and rich for white Africans, and the poor, bad land, was for the black Africans. White Africans were also the only ones able to vote.
Nelson Mandela- Nelson Mandela was a South African revolutionary politician and always wanted to promote the welfare of others. He served as the first black President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was thrown in jail for 27 years while trying to overthrow the pro-apartheid government. After he was released, he worked for to achieve human rights in South Africa.
Imperialism and Colonialism:
Imperialism- Imperialism is a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force. When Europeans began trade on the African coast, European imperialism in Africa began. Slowly, the Europeans moved in, in search for profitable resources. Finally, they established colonies.
Colonialism-Colonialism is the practice of gaining full or partial control over another country, and developing trade for its own benefit. The Europeans took control of a lot of Africa and developed trade with other countries to improve Europe.
Coup- A sudden, violent, illegal seize of power from a government. After Nigeria gained Independence the new government was overthrown in a coup. In a series of coups, rival ethnic groups replaced the existing government, often putting military officials in charge.
Refugee- A refugee is a person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, natural disaster, or any other self danger. When Sudan had religious and ethnic conflict, the governments militia attacked many people, and the 2.5 million people that escaped, were refugees. Some of these, people were The Lost Boys of Sudan.
Clan- Five major clans have caused Somalians to suffer through conflict. Clans are large, family-based units with loyalty to the group. Somalians never united to form a single nation, because sub-clans also clash within the clans. The military government was overthrown by clan-based groups in 1991. The battles that raged between clans disrupted farms that were already threatened by droughts and floods.
Lots Boys of Sudan- The Lost Boys of Sudan is the name given to the groups of over 20,000 boys of the Nuer and Dinka ethnic groups who were displaced during the Second Sudanese Civil War and about 2.5 million people were killed and millions were displaced.