Canada's Mining Industry
Edmond, Tyler, Ajay

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals and natural resources from the earth.  It is a process of extracting minerals like gold, silver, copper, nickel and uranium, salt, potash, coal and oil formations that concentrate naturally in the earth.

Mining in Canada is located at the Canadian shield. The Canadian shield is rich in various minerals. There are over 25 million people indirectly involved in mining, in Canada there are about 1.5 million. Mining has a few different ways that it benefits Canada. One is that it provides job opportunities for many people, usually there are no education requirements. The other way that it benefits Canada is that if we major in a rare mineral, we can  raise the price up and sell the minerals to different countries and profit money.

                                       Effects of mining on the environment

1:Pit Mining
Pit mining damages the area around the targeted orebody and is extremely wasteful, as tons of dirt are moved aside and then just tossed back in, the natural soil rhythms are broken and the soil is piled back on in the wrong order. Environmental hazards are present during every step of the open-pit mining process. Hardrock mining exposes rock that has lain unexposed for ages. When crushed, these rocks expose radioactive elements and metallic dust. During separation, residual rock slurries, which are mixtures of pulverized rock and liquid, are produced as tailings (Mining Waste), toxic and radioactive elements from these liquids can leak into bedrock if not properly contained.

2:Underground Mining
Underground mining has the potential for tunnel collapses. It involves large-scale movements of waste rock and vegetation, similar to open pit mining. Additionally, like most traditional forms of mining, underground mining can release toxic compounds into the air and water. As water takes on harmful concentrations of minerals and heavy metals, it becomes a contaminant. This contaminated water can pollute the region surrounding the mine and beyond. Mercury is commonly used to facilitate the recovery of some precious ores (e.g. Silver, Gold, and Diamond). Mercury tailings (Mercury infused mining waste) then become a major source of concern, and improper disposal can lead to contamination of the atmosphere and neighboring bodies of water. Most underground mining operations increase sedimentation in nearby rivers through their use of hydraulic pumps and suction dredges; blasting with hydraulic pumps removes ecologically valuable topsoil containing seed banks, making it difficult for vegetation to recover. Deforestation due to mining leads to the disintegration of biomes and contributes to the effects of erosion.

What is the mining industry doing to ensure that it is operating in a sustainable manner?
The mining industry is mining less number of days to keep emissions down. They mine only certain amount of hours a day.
In your educated assessment is the industry doing well to ensure that it limits the impact on the environment and is operating in a sustainable way?
No they are not because of the amount of emissions and poisinous gases that are still being produced by the companies. For example a mining company mining coal will find mercurey and they just dump it in the river which will poisen the fish. When we go to purify our water the murcurey may not get filtered properly.

Mining Questions
1: What two types of mining techniques are typically used when mining?
A: surface mining and sub-surface mining
2: what are the environmental impacts of mining?
A: Erosion,sinkholes,biodiversity and contamination of groundwater,soil and water by chemicals from the mining process

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