A map of India when the British were controlling it.
Sepoys were made by the East India Company to serve anywhere, either in India or overseas. In 1857 the British issued new rifles to the sepoys. Troops were told to bite off the tip of the cartridge before loading it into the rifle. They were believed to be coated with animal fats that were sacred to the Hindu's and Muslim's.
After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India Called the British Raj, where a viceroy governed in India under the name of the Queen, and British officials held the top positions in the civil service and army.
Britain saw India both as a market and as a source of raw materials. To this end, the British built roads and an impressive railroad network. Improved transportation let the British sell their factory-made goods across the subcontinent and carry Indian cotton, jute, and coal to the coastal ports for transport to factories in England.
Roy combined the views of the Indians who were impressed by the British and those who thought that they should keep their own Hindu or Muslim traditions. He was a great scholar. Roy felt that India could learn from the West. He was a founder of Hindu College in Calcutta, which provided an English-style education to Indians.