Heat & Temperature
By: Brigette Barry

Key terms:

Kinetic theory of matter sates that all of the particles that make up matter are in constant motion, which means that these particles have kinetic energy.

Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy in the particles that make up an object.

Degrees are equally spaced units between two points that temperature is measured in.

Thermometers are used to measure temperature .  They measure temperature through the physical property of a material inside the thermometer.

Thermal expansion is what makes liquid filled thermometers work.  When the liquid heats up, the particles move faster and grow father apart, causing the liquid in the thermometer to rise.

How is temperature measured?

Temperate is measured mainly using 2 scales, Fahrenheit and Celsius.  Fahrenheit is most commonly used in the United States.  It was devolved in the early 1700s by Gabriel Fahrenheit.  On the Fahrenheit scale water begins to freeze at 32° and begins to boil at 212°.  The temperature scale that is mostly used in other parts of the world outside the United Sates and in science is Celsius.  This temperature scale was developed by Anders Celsius in the 1740s which water begins freezing at 0° and begins to boils at 100°.  The Kelvin Temperature scale is not as well know, as it is used primarily as a measurement in physical science and is not measured in degrees.  

States of matter and their particles:

Particles in solids are not free to move, they vibrate back and forth in the same position and are held together by the force of attraction.  In liquids the particles move much more freely than in solids.  They slide around each other and bump into each other while doing so.  The particles in gasses move at high speeds far away form each other with little contact with each other.  Particles do not always move at the same speed and they can change states.

Temperature and kinetic energy:

The particles in hot liquids move much faster than particles in cold liquids.  This is because temperature and kinetic energy are connected! When the kinetic energy of things increases so does its temperature.  

How liquid filled thermometers work:

Thermal expansion! Liquid filled thermometers measure how much the liquid inside them expands. When the temperature increases, the particles in the liquid move faster and expand, causing the liquid to travel up the thermometer. When the temperature goes down, the particles slow down making the liquid travel back down the tube inside the thermometer.  You are also able to create your own thermometer using your knowledge  on thermal expansion.  See video below.


"Kelvin." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 6 Feb. 2008. Web. 14 Jan. 2015.

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