Basic Forms of Learning
The Power of Conditioning
Operant Conditioning: A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Classical Conditioning: A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
Associative Learning: Learning that certain events occur together. May be two stimuli or a response and its consequences.
Law of Effect: Principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
Shaping: Operant Conditioning procedure which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
B.F Skinner: Went on to become modern behaviorism's most controversial and influential figures. Created the Skinner box (operant chamber).
Unconditioned Response- The unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus. (Salvation when food is in the mouth)
Unconditioned Stimulus- Stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically triggers and response. (The food in the mouth)
Conditioned Response- The learned response to a previously neutral stimulus. (Salvation)
Conditioned Stimulus- An originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response. (A tone)
1.Fixed Ratio Schedule- A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
2.Variable Ratio Schedule- A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after an unpredictable number of responses.
3.Fixed Interval Schedule- A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
4. Variable Interval Schedule- A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
Positive Reinforcement: Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli such as food.
Negative Reinforcement: Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing stimuli, shock as shock.
Punishment: An event that decreases the behavior that it follows.