The Evolution Of Communist Theory & Practice
com·mu·nism.a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
Part One: Karl Marx
Due to the Industrial Revolution, Karl Marx's theory of communism became popular during his time. The Industrial Revolution enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor. He believed workers would eventually overthrow the owners.
Communism- A form of complete socialism in which the means of production are owned by the people, there is no private property, and all goods are shared equally.
Socialism- a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
Part Two: Lenin
Lenin's theory of communism became popular because it was a solution to the Russian Revolution. A spark to the revolution was how the past Czars left Russia Russia into economic turmoil. Nicholas 1 started the Crimean War and couldn't win it. Alexander 2 had the edict of emancipation which freed all surfs that had intentions to better the economy, but instead worsen it. Alexander 3 became a totaltariant which made the people of Russia want to revolt. Another reason was the Industrial Revolution, it had laborers in poor working conditions and had a population boom. Hearing about Lenin's answer to the Revolution was appealing to the people of Russia which made his theory of communism become popular.
Leninism noun (Concise Encyclopedia)
Principles expounded by Vladimir Ilich Lenin to guide the transition of society from capitalism to communism. The tenets of Marxism, which Lenin embraced, provided no concrete guidelines for the transition. Lenin believed that a small, disciplined, professional group of revolutionaries was needed to violently overthrow the capitalist system and that a “dictatorship of the proletariat” must guide society until the day when the state would wither away. Leninism in practice meant control of all aspects of life by the Communist Party and the creation of the first modern totalitarian state.
capitalism- an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
communism- a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
Part Three: Zedong
Mao-Zedong's theory of communism developed and popular because the country of China was tor in two. Half of the people believed modernization and nationalism was the key to survival. The other half of the people believed that China's legacy was in its traditional ways.
Marxism speaks of proletarian revolution arising out of the class struggle in the society and to be driven by the working class. Maoism talks of a sustained peasantry revolution by terminating the class enemies. Maoism believes in extreme violence as the only weapon to seize power.
proletarian- workers or working-class people, remarked as a whole
Part Four: Backlash
One reaction from being against communist theory and practices in Italy during the Inter War Years (1919-1939) was fascism. Fascism preached an extreme form of nationalism. It emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. In fascism, one party ruled and denied individual rights. Fascism was supported by middle class, industrialists, and the military. Benito Mussolini was the founder of the Fascist Class in Italy. Mussolini had the loyalty of the Black Shirts, a squad of street fighters who beat up socialists and communists and threw them out of local governments, which allowed him to play on fear of worker's revolt. Mussolini's fascism became popular in his time because the Treaty of Versailles was a disappointment over failure to win large territorial gains. Another reason is there was a ride in inflation and high employment, leaving the economy in an economic turmoil.
Another reaction from being opposed to communist theory and practices in Germany was Nazism. Nazi stands for National Socialist German Workers Party. Nazism is the belief that Germany had to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism. The private militia for the Nazis are the Storm Troopers, a.k.a. The Brown Shirts. Success as an organizer and speaker allowed Hitler to become der Fuhrer (leader) of the party. Hitler attempted to seize power of Munich after being inspired by Mussolini. When he failed, he was arrested and tried for treason, then sent to prison. While in prison, he wrote "Mein Kampf" or "My Struggle" outlines beliefs and goals for Germany. Hitler proposed that the Aryans were a master race and Germany needed more lebensraum, or living space. In 1932, Nazis were the largest party, conservatives believed they could control so they advised President Hidenburg to make Hitler chancellor. Reichstag burned down the day before elections making the Communists, the Nazi's target. SS (Schutztaffed or protection squad) and the Gestapo (secret police) enforced totalitarian policies
Part Five: Connection
New Zealand has socialist characteristics but is not considered a socialist country. New Zealand's welfare system has a wide range of public assistance. Their welfare system offers support for housing, unemployment, health, child care, and also education.
Communism in theory is applicable. Although in practice it fails. It's determinable that it will never lead to a Proletariat leadership. It will only lead to a dictatorship of a tyrant. Communism is just the idea of the perfect system of government. Communism isn't able to work. I believe there is no "perfect" solution, but democracy comes quite close.