Chapter 16 Summary

Turing Test

involves a human judge who asks questions to two contestants: one a human and the other a computer without knowing the content on which the information is extracted from. Then the judge determines which one is the computer and that determines if the computer is intelligent. CAPTCHAs are modern forms of these tests but used for posting comments on forums. Ex: Deep Blue & Watson

Used commonly when users log into a account or setting up one. Artificial Intelligence contrast to computational intelligence

Expert System

Software programs which use programmed logic and rules to make the same decisions as a human expert, usually restricted to answering questions in a specific knowledge domain.


  • medical diagnosis expert systems
  • Medical image analysis
  • identfifying agricultural pests and diseases
  • spelling and grammer checking in word processors
  • finance; deciding whether to approve a loan
  • Fault; diagnosis in various fields

Interface Rules


Expert System Shell: a set of programs which allow the building of a expert system through the creation of knowledge and rules with the three essential components such as the user interface, knowledge base, and knowledge engineer.

Decision Trees

Very basic expert systems to come to conclusions having two possible values; true and false, yes and no, 1 and 0 and etc. The meaning of the two values is not relevant only that there are just two possible outcomes. To avoid the problems of decision trees, expert systems typically use interference rules and chaining.

Fuzzy Logic

They are usually written as IF THEN statements which describe rules for a knowledge domain.

Used to model concepts in expert systems whereas in traditional set theory objects either belong to a set or not. An advantages of fuzzy logic is that it allows expert systems to provide multiple answers, each with differing degrees of certainty.


May suffer from data integrity problems including data which has been incorrectly entered.  The impact of these depends on the knowledge domain. &