Immune System

By:Dexter Muse

Organs and there Functions

The Immune System is made up of tissue and specialized white blood cells that recognize and attack foreign substances in the body. These white blood cells function in a coordinated way to help identify and destroy pathogens.

Some white bloods cells are:

  • Macrophage
  • T Cells
  • B Cells

External Defenses

Skin provides provides external protection from pathogens that are trying to enter your body. Skin also has structures, such as hair, nails, and sweat and oil glands that help provide protection.

Internal Defenses

Most of the time, pathogens don't get past the external defenses. Sometimes, skin is cut and can enter the body. The body responds quickly and keeps out as many pathogens as they can. Blood flow rushes to the to the injured area and it starts to swell up and turn red. This swelling is called inflammation.

Macrophages are white blood cells that destroy pathogens by engulfing and digesting them. Nickname: destroyer

Some T Cells coordinate the bodies immune response, while others attack infected cells. Activates B cells. Nickname: Activator/Attacker

B Cells make antibodies that attach to specific antigens. Nickname: Responder

Immunity in action. A healthy immune system can defeat invading pathogens as shown above, where two bacteria that cause gonorrhea are no match for the large phagocyte, called a neutrophil, that engulfs and kills them (arrows).

Whats a pathogen?

  • A pathogen is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host.

What is a Large Phagocyte?

  • Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.

How to boost your Immune System!

Adopt healthy living strategies

  • Don’t smoke.
  • Eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and low in saturated fat.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Control your blood pressure.
  • If you drink alcohol, drink only in moderation.
  • Get adequate sleep.
  • Take steps to avoid infection, such as washing your hands frequently and cooking meats thoroughly.
  • Get regular medical screening tests for people in your age group and risk category.

When something dies, its immune system shuts down. In a matter of hours, the body is invaded by all sorts of bacteria, microbes, and parasites. But when you're still alive bacteria, microbes, and parasites cant get in. as soon as your immune system shuts down these all will invade.The immune system is complex, intricate and interesting. And there are at least two good reasons for you to know more about it. First, it is just plain fascinating to understand where things like fevers, hives, inflammation, come from when they happen inside your own body. You also hear a lot about the immune system in the news as new parts of it are understood and new drugs come on the market, knowing about the immune system makes these news stories understandable.

The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body from infection. The human body provides an ideal environment for many microbes, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, and the immune system prevents and limits their entry and growth to maintain optimal health.

Leukocytes are produced or stored in many locations in the body, including the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow. For this reason, they're called the lymphoid organs. There are also clumps of lymphoid tissue throughout the body, primarily as lymph nodes, that house the leukocytes.

The two most basic types of leukocytes are:

  1. phagocytes, cells that chew up invading organisms
  2. lymphocytes, cells that allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them

The immune system protects organisms from infection with layered defenses of increasing specificity. In simple terms, physical barriers prevent pathogens such as bacteria and viruses from entering the organism. If a pathogen breaches these barriers, the innate immune system provides an immediate. If pathogens successfully evade the innate response, vertebrates possess a second layer of protection, the adaptive immune system, which is activated by the innate response.

Antibodies also can neutralize toxins (poisonous or damaging substances) produced by different organisms. Lastly, antibodies can activate a group of proteins called complement that are also part of the immune system. Complement assists in killing bacteria, viruses, or infected cells.

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