Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics deals with relationships between heat and other forms of energy; in particular, it describes how thermal energy is converted to other forms of energy and from other forms of energy and how it affects matter.

Thermal energy is the energy a substance or system has because of it's temperature.  Thermodynamics involves measuring this energy.  Thermodynamics is also involved with several properties of matter, mostly heat obviously.  Heat can be converted into other forms of energy, a light bulb can convert electrical energy to light, or scientifically known as electromagnetic radiation, and when absorbed by a surface, is converted back to heat.

The amount of heat transferred by a substance depends depends on the number of atoms or molecules in motion, and the speed of them, according to EnergyThermodynamics deals with relationships between heat and other forms of energy; in particular, it describes how thermal energy is converted to other forms of energy and from other forms of energy and how it affects matter.

Thermal energy is the energy a substance or system has because of it's temperature. Thermodynamics involves measuring this energy. Thermodynamics is also involved with several properties of matter, mostly heat obviously. Heat can be converted into other forms of energy, a light bulb can convert electrical energy to light, or scientifically known as electromagnetic radiation, and when absorbed by a surface, is converted back to heat.

The amount of heat transferred by a substance depends on the number of atoms or molecules in motion, and the speed of them, according to Energy Education. Energy Education website of the Texas Education Agency also says "the systems we study in thermodynamics consist of very large numbers of atoms or molecules interacting in complicated ways, which can make it exceedingly complicated to measure the energy." These both go hand in hand. The faster the atoms or molecules move (energy), the higher then temperature (heat), and the more atoms or molecules that are in motion, the quantity of heat they transfer is greater. Temperature is "a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in the sample matter, expressed in terms of units or degrees designated on a standard scale".

Now the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a certain mass of a substance is called specific heat. Specific heat is used to measure heat of a metal, heat of gas, ect. Specific heat is used to measure how much heat can be absorbed into a certain thing (aluminum, lead, ect.) which is almost the same thing as thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity though is "the RATE at which heat passes through a specified material". So, bascially, specific heat is the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a certain thing, and thermal conductivity is the rate at which heat passes through a certain thing.

Then there are the 3 heat transfers-

1. Conduction

2. Convection

3. Radiation

Conduction is the transfer of energy through a solid material. Conduction happens when two bodies are in direct contact and molecules transfer their energy when they meet and interact.

Convection is the transfer of heat through fluids. Molecules in the gas or liquid in contact with a body to absorb heat into, and then for that body to move away, allowing more molecules to move into the place of the other molecules and replace the process.

Radiation is the emission (release) of electromagnetic energy (light) that carry heat energy.

All thermodynamic systems generate waste heat. This waste results in an increase in entropy. Entropy in any closed system always increases, and will never decrease. As well, moving parts produce waste heat due to friction, and radiactive heat leaks into the system.  

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