Muslim Empire

The Muslim Empire started when Muslims wanted to spread Islam. It also spread by origins: Out of Mecca, east to India, west across North Africa and on into Spain. It also spread by growth. They wanted to spread Islam to other people. Their military conquest took about 100 years to expand most of their empire. They were great fighters. If they died in battle they believed they would go directly to heaven, The Islam word for holy war is Jihad. The military treated conquered people fairly. They also spread their religion by trade. The Battle of Tours was October 10, 732 A.D. was in southern France. The French Christians, under Charles Martel, defeated the Muslims and stopped their advance into Europe. The Muslims had a Golden Age from 700-900 A.D. It was a great learning and cultural diffusion. The Muslims contributed many things to our society. They contributed Mathematics: spread Gupta math ideas, and created algebra and trigonometry. Medicine: created hospitals, wrote medical textbooks, and doctors were required to pass exams to practice medicine. Architecture: influenced by Byzantine and Indian styles. Astronomy: learned from Greek ideas, created astronomical tables. Islamic Laws: based on Islamic religious laws in the Qur’an, became the basis for political laws in the empire. Banking: used money, allowed credit (money borrowing) to be used. The Muslim Empire preserved Roman and Greek ideas that they got from the Byzantine Empire. They then improved the ideas. In 737 A.D. Charles Martel sends his brother, Childebrand, to lay siege to Avignon and drive out the Muslim occupiers. Childebrand is successful and, according to records, has all the Muslims in the city killed. In 725 Muslim forces occupied Nimes, France. In 730 Muslim forces occupy the French cities of Narbonne and Avignon. 

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