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The Excretory System

The excretory system is the system that undergoes the complex process of excretion. Excretion is the process of removing waste products from the body.

The excretory system is vital in the way a body functions. Several Organs of the body are involved in the process of excretion such as Skin, the liver, the lungs, the kidneys, and many others.

Functions of Excretory System

Excretion: The process of removing waste products from the body.

  • The primary function of the excretory system is to eliminate wastes produced by homeostasis.
  • Gets rid of unnecessary materials from your body, including sweat.
  • Regulation process of body fluids and salt level is also called osmoregulation
  • Waste exits through the private parts of the excretory system.
  • Helps maintain homeostasis and protect the body from diseases by interacting with other body systems.
  • Kidneys pulls harmful molecules out of your bloodstream leaves the ones that are beneficial to the body.
  • As cells break down amino acids, they produce a harmful toxin known as urea.
  • During cellular respiration, the cells break down carbohydrates. CO2 is left as a waste, and the excretory system removes that waste from the body.

Structure of the Excretory System

Organs of the excretory system include the kidneys, large intestine, liver, skin, and lungs.

  • The skin eliminates excess water and salts in sweat.
  • The large intestine removes water from the waste in the intestine and puts the water back in the body. It also stores waste in the intestine.
  • The liver helps detoxify the blood by removing any chemicals that are potentially hazardous.
  • The lungs are considered part of the excretory system because they exhale water vapor and carbon dioxide.
  • The Urinary system is comprised of kidneys, ureters, bladder, aorta, vena cava and urethra.
  • The three sections of kidneys are the renal cortex, the renal medulla, and the renal pelvis.
  • Kidney: Excretory organ that removes waste products from the blood.
  • Ureter: Tube that carries liquid waste from the kidneys to the bladder. Urine leaves the kidneys by ureters.
  • Bladder: Excretory organ that stores liquid waste. It collects urine excreted by the kidneys before urination.
  • Aorta: The Aorta is the primary artery in the human body. It provides blood with oxygen to all parts of the body.
  • Urethra: A tube that connects the baldder to the meatus so that fluids can be removed from the body.
  • Vena Cava: Returns blood without oxygen from the body into the heart.
  • The solid waste exits the body through the anus or the mouth.
  • Liquid waste generally exits through the kidneys.
  • Specialized Cells in the Excretory System

    Certain cells in multicellular organisms carry out a specific function for the organism's benefit. If all of these cells work together properly, the system will function properly. Specialized cells in the excretory system include the canal cell, the gland cell, the pore cell, and the duct cell. In the excretory system, there is one canal cell, one pore cell, one duct cell, and a fused pair of gland cells.

    The excretory canal cell functions in part as a kidney, excreting materials in the duct and pore in order to maintain the animal's salt balance. Gland cells make substances such as hormones. This is for release into the bloodstream or release into cavities inside the body. The duct cell and pore cell are specialized cells that connect to the ventral body wall. The ventral body wall leads to the outflow of the excretory system.

    The specialized tissues in the excretory system are the epithelial tissue and smooth muscle tissue. Epithelial tissue helps outline the external and internal organs in the excretory system. Smooth muscle tissue creates supporting tissue in the kidneys and intestine.

    Gland Cell

    Interactions Among Other Body Systems

    In order for the human body to work properly, all parts of the body must perform their task and interact with each other. Without this interaction, humans may get sick, injured, and they may even die. The excretory system interacts with other systems and contributes to the health of a human in many ways.

    Interaction with digestive system: Whenever humans consume foods and liquids, the excretory system gets rid of the unnecessary materials from the foods and liquids.

    Interaction with urinary system: Humans consume water and salts and the excretory system gets rid of the water by urinating.

    Interaction with endocrine system: The endocrine system controls the levels of compounds and monitors fluids, so the excretory system gets rid of some compounds and fluids to control the level.

    Interaction with the immune system: Kidneys (in the excretory system) assist the immune system by removing toxins that could cause trouble to the immune system's cell functions.

    Interaction with the respiratory system: Humans breath in oxygen and the excretory system assists in releasing carbon dioxide.

    Interaction with the reproductive system: Sperm is a major part of the reproductive system, and sperm exits through the penis.

    Interaction with the circulatory system: The circulatory system brings blood over to the kidneys which is used to assist the kidneys in creating/removing urine.

    Diseases and Disorders of the Excretory System

    Kidney Cancer

    Kidney Cancer- When there is uncontrolled growth of cells in the kidneys.

    Nephritis- The inflammation of one or both kidneys.

    Nephrosis- When there are symptoms of swelling, protein in urine, low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels, and increasing triglyceride levels.

    Vesicoureteral Reflux: Occurs when the urine flows back from bladder into the ureters.

    Cystitis: The inflammation of the bladder.

    Bibliography for Pictures

    "Excretory Systems." Biology. Ed. Richard Robinson. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2009. Science in Context. Web. 29 Mar. 2015.

    “Excretory System”. Excretory System by Wikimedia Commons 27 May, 2010. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 29 Mar. 2015.

    "The urinary system." Body by Design. Gale, 2010. Science in Context. Web. 29 Mar. 2015.

    "Excretory system." UXL Encyclopedia of Science. Detroit: UXL, 2007. Science in Context. Web. 29 Mar. 2015.

    “Gland cells”. Gland Cell by Wikimedia Commons 19 September, 2009. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 29 Mar. 2015.

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