By: Dixie, Karen, and Marina
Sumer, or Sumeria, was located in the southern part of Mesopotamia, in the middle of the Tigris & Euphrates rivers. It is one of the early civilizations to be made prior to Babylonia.
Ended: Around 1900BC
Total time: 2600-2200 Years BC
Originally, political power was their key, but as their city-states had rivalry between eachother, each city-state adopted their own kings. There were eight kings prior to a flood in Sumer, according to The Sumerian King List. After a flood, the balance was thrown off, and one ruler of Kish, known as Jucur was the first king to rule. After then, the kings fought eachother for total control.
Religious Beliefs & Practices
Sumerians worshiped nature. However, Sumerian officials came to a conclusion (Possibly due to the flood) That there was someone in charge of the nature. They believed that gods in human forms were the ones at work when it comes to nature.
At first, they did not speak their native language, and are known as proto-Euphrateans. The language itself is the oldest written language that was made, in 3100BC. Akkadian replace it speech-wise, but it continued to be used for writing. The symbols changed throughout the civilization's timeline, writing it on clay.
The Sumerians used stone tablets, decorated columns, and occasionally made jewelry for their superiors.
An example of their technology is encasing an engraved stone tablet (made from mud) with another engraved stone tablet, signed with cylinder seals. They're sometimes used for writing their names. These seals are used to identify the status of a certain person. Other accomplishments include first wheeled vehicles, first system of writing: cuneiform, first code of laws, & first city states.
The Sumerian lifeline ended when all of Mesopotamia was taken over by the Amorites. However, their culture continued to live on much longer than the civilization itself.
(Generally, THEY WERE NUMBER ONE! LIKE SMITHY WARBEN JEAGARMAN JENSEN.)