The Evolution of Communist Theory and how it's practiced.
The Industrial Revolution caused many problems for the people of the time: raised taxes, poor working conditions, and low pay. The civilians of the time were fed up with being treated unfairly and were looking for a savior. Karl Marx wanted to solve the conditions in the factories and the people followed him along with his ideas.
Karl Marx believed capitalism alienated people from each other and communism will unite the population as a whole. Karl Marx's idea went against philosopher, Adam Smith. Smith believed in "Laisse-Faire" and capitalism.
Capitalism: an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
"Laisse-Faire": let it be. In other words, the citizens are free from government restrictions, tariffs, and subsidies, with only enough regulations to protect property rights.
Heaven Knows I'm Miserable Now- The Smiths
"I was looking for a job and the I found a job/ And Heaven knows I'm miserable now/ In my life, why do I give valuable time /To people who don't care if I live or die?"
The people in this time were constantly looking for a job because all the jobs were in the city. Once a person found a job, they were miserable because they earned terrible pay, worked in unsanitary factories, and labored for unreasonable hours; 16 hours. The workers questioned why should they give up time, where they could be spending time with their families, for people who don't care if they are alive or not. Heaven Knows I'm Miserable Now by The Smiths perfectly resembles how the civilians felt toward the Industrial Revolution.
Before the reign of Lenin, four leaders brought the up rise in Lenin's domination: Nicholas I, Alexander II, Alexander III, and Nicholas II. Nicholas I joined the Crimean War and Russian lost to France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. The Treaty of Paris claimed that Russia wasn't allowed to have military fleets on the Black Sea. This reduced the image of Russia being the greatest country. Alexander II freed the serfs because he feared of a revolution was going to come about. Alexander II gave the serfs the right to obtain property, to marry, and to participate in trade. Even though the serfs had freedom, the nobles remained wealthy while the majority of the population continued to be poor. The serfs wanted complete equality and hoped, Alexander III, would lead to their dream. Instead, Alexander III believed in absolutism and turned to radical ways. Alexander III monitored education and hired secret police to invade the lives of the citizens. He also made Russia the official language and the Orthodox Church the official religion. Nicholas II believed he could bring Russia back to the top by industrializing Russia. Even though Nicholas II had good intentions, the Industrial revolution caused many problem for the workers: low pay, raised taxes, poor working conditions. In Russia's time of darkness, Lenin believed a revolution would get Russia out of the hole.
Lenin believed the peasants would start the revolution but needed an extra push of a professional and the revolution would end with a single party controlling the government. Karl Marx postulated that the revolution would be spontaneous and it would have an end result of a dictatorship of the proletariat. Despite their differences, they both concluded that the revolution would at least include the capitalist and the proletariat (Lenin's version included the peasants) and history was the story of class struggle (rich vs. poor).
Absolutism: a form of government where a monarch has complete power of the land and no laws are set upon them.
Proletariat: working class.
Sun Yixian's three goals for the Republic of China brought forth the rise of Mao Zedong: nationalism, democracy, and economic security. Sun Yixian lacked authority and military support to reach his goals. Yixian steeped down from presidency to a powerful general who deserted the democratic principles. The new government lead to civil wars with Russia. The Chinese government hoped to gain victory by declaring war on Germany. China joined the Allied Powers. Once the Allied Powers won World War I, China was hoping for a reward from the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles stated that Germany had to take the blame for the war, give up land, could not industrialize, have no army, and pay repercussions. It also stated the land China lost, as a result to imperialism, was rewarded to Japan. Students, workers, shop owners, and professionals were angered and took part of the May Forth Movement. Mao Zedong took a look around and believed he could take China back to the top.
Zedong wanted to destroy imperialism, militarism, gentry, bosses, and corrupt officialdom. Mao Zedong also believed the revolution would be rural and be lead by the peasants; Marx would disagree with Zedong's claim. Marx said the revolution would be ran by the proletariat and be in the industrial nations. Lenin would agree with Zedong to a certain degree. Lenin claimed the revolution would begin at industrial nations and rural and the proletariats and peasants would lead the revolution.
Nationalism: pride in one's country
Democracy: government where people have the power.
Economic Security: people's livelihood.
May Forth Movement: anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement.
Fascism was the reaction from Hitler and Mussolini against communism. Fascism was a dictatorship that consisted of nationalism, militarism, and censorship.
Mussolini was disappointed in the Treaty of Versailles because it was a failure to win large territorial gains. He questioned if democracy was the best form of government because of inflation and high unemployment. Mussolini's solution was to have fascism as the new government. He would have his Black Shirts attack Communists and Socialists. Mussolini to abolished democracy, outlawed political parties, used secret police, and censored material officially ban communism and have fascism take its place.
Adolf Hitler was another fascist leader during the Inter-War Years. He believed Germany had to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and battle communism. Conservatives believed they could control Hitler by convincing President Hidenburg to make Hitler chancellor. The day before elections, the Reichstag burns down and the Nazis target Communists. Hitler wanted fascism to take Germany to the top so he could seek revenge on the Allied Powers.
China is a Communist country because the government in China controls the factors of production: land, entrepreneurship, labor, and capitalism. Today, China is well known for there massive production of money. The money is equally divided among the citizens. Also, the government gives every citizen equal rights: the right of speech, religion, press, speedy trial, and own property. In a Communist country, everyone is equal. This relates to Lenin because he wanted peasants to be equal to the proletariats.
I think the way the Communist theory and the way its practiced is inefficient. The government should give everyone a voice because if not, it causes chaos; hence, the Cultural and Russian Revolution. I also don't agree with democracy because truly, not everyone gets a say in government. I believe a republic is the best form of government because the people get to elect their representatives and they have a say in who represents them.