Definition: a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning.
Example 1: "Why is drinking alcohol so popular at the high school level? As a high school student, I think I have a thorough understanding of what is going on. Most people would agree that alcohol can be dangerous and quite damaging, directly or indirectly. The only people who believe otherwise are either denying a known fact or are extremely ignorant."
An inference I can make from reading this is that this person is against high school students drinking alcohol.
"My name is jimmy and I am the starting goalie for our high school soccer team. I have been playing soccer since I was five years-old. I get an adrenaline rush just thinking about the game. I don’t only practice with the team but every free moment. My parents are constantly telling me to slow down before I injure myself I just laugh..."
I can infer that this person is really obsessed with soccer.
Example 3: "(Winter is) the prettiest (season), with bright rays of sunlight glinting off the fresh snow and ice sculptures in the trees and shadows playing tricks with your eyes on the ground. The slow-falling flakes that never seem to stop spread a feeling of peace and relaxation."
I can infer that this person's favorite season is winter.
I can infer that Homer is very unhealthy because he hates the idea of dieting more than dying.
I can infer that this person hit a baseball through a window because the window is broken, he has a bat, and his face looks like "uh-oh."
I can infer that this person is sick because of the ice pack on the head.