TextBook Glossary

TB pg. 640

Metaphors- describes one thing as if it were something else
Personification- gives human qualities to something nonhuman
Similes- use like or as to compare two unlike things
Alliteration- the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words
Repetition- the repeated use of a sound, word, or phrase
Assonance- the repetition of vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds
Consonance- the repetition of final consonant sounds in stressed syllables with different vowel sounds
Onomatopoeia- the use of words that imitate sounds
Rhyme- the repetition of sounds at the end of words
Rhythm- the pattern of strong and weak beats, as well as pauses, in a poem

TB pg. 641

Lines- they help poets add natural pauses by breaking up a poem into many individual parts. Each line may be punctuated differently, or not at all. A capital letter usually introduces the beginning of a line.
Stanzas- the arrangement of groups of lines to create an appearance on the page or to organize thoughts. Each stanza is set off from the next stanza by a blank line below it.
Meter- the rhythmical pattern, or the arrangement and number of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Rhyme Scheme- the pattern of rhythm in a poem. it is written in words; aabb, meaning the first two and last two lines rhythm.

TB pg. 642

Lyric Poetry- expresses the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker, often in a musical verse. The speaker and the poet are not always the same person. Lyric poetry is a broad category that includes many specific types of poems such as sonnets, odes, and elegies.
Sonnets- fourteen line poems with a formal tone that follows a specific rhythm scheme.
Odes- poems with a formal tone with one purpose, which is to celebrate or honor a person, object, or idea.
Elegies- formal poems that reflect on death or other solemn, serious themes.
Narrative Poetry- tells a story in a verse. Narrative poems have elements like those in a short story such as plot, characters, and setting. Narrative poetry also includes lower classification like epics and ballads.
Epics- long, narrative poems that tell an exciting or inspiring story, usually about a hero. They have serious, elevated tones and sometimes a regular meter.
Ballads- a song-like poem that tells a story, usually about adventure, tragedy, or romance.
Free Verse Poetry- is defined by it's lack of strict structure. It has no rhythm, length, pattern or any other structure. Instead the poet chooses a loose structure that fits the poem.
Limericks- are humorous five line poems with a specific rhythmic pattern and an aabba rhythm scheme.
Concrete Poem- the words are arranged to form a shape that suggests the topic or ideas in poem. They have a lighthearted, humorous theme. They don't have a specific meter, but they sometimes have a rhyme.
Haikus- they are short, unrhymed poems, often about nature. It consists of 17 syllables. Five in the first line, seven in the second, and five more in the last line.