Citing Text Evidence

Text evidence is WHAT is important;
Elaboration (Explanation) is WHY it is important.


Head Shots

1. Have students write ADJECTIVES that describe the character inside the head.
2. On the left side of the head, students write the TEXT EVIDENCE (with page numbers) that supports the adjectives they have chosen
3. On the right side of the head, students write the explanation for how the text evidence supports the adjectives

*Color code the adjectives, text evidence and explanation
*Give a certain number of adjectives

4. As a summative activity, have the students write a paragraph (or paragraphs) using the information.

T Chart/2-Column Notes

The T-Chart or 2-Column Notes can be used for a variety of situations:
1. Answer a question - Text Evidence on the left, explanation on the right
2. Paraphrasing - Text Evidence on the left, paraphrase on the right
3. Arguments - Claim and Counter Argument on left, Text Evidence on right

Inference Wheel & Quote Sandwich

1. Using The Inference Wheel, students choose multiple quotations and write them on the inner ring, explaining what they mean in the outer ring. This structure is especially helpful for analyzing multiple quotations.
2. The Quote Sandwich helps to give structure to the elements of a paragraph for students by reminding them to explain the quote - so many times students just stop after writing the answer and the quote.

**In order to prevent students from quoting long passages, give limits to the number of words in a quote. This needs to be flexible, but it will help students focus on the explanation rather than just the quote.

Because there are many options for the graphic organizers mentioned here, I have not given links to any of them. A quick Google search will produce a plethora of options.