The Mongols- The Mongolian Empire lasted from 960-1279. In 1206 Genghis Khan, also known as Temujin became the ruler because of his great military skills and ability to lead. He set out to make a strong military and had strict discipline. He rewarded whoever pleased him. Genghis Khan led the Mongols conquering much of Asia. They learned how to use gunpowder on the way. He died in 1227 and left the thrown for his grandson Kublai Khan to complete his task of conquering all of China and Korea. He had many grandsons go out and conquer. The conquered Russia, Poland, and Hungary. The Mongols ruled their empire peacefully despite violently building it. They allowed any religion and allowed local rulers to rule as long as they paid tribute to the empire. The Mongols developed what is called the Pax Mongolia meaning Mongol peace. They guarded the Silk roads and various trade routes. This made it safe to travel through them.
Yuan Dynasty- After the last Song ruler was defeated, Kublai Khan created the Yuan dynasty in 1279. To gain the Chinese peoples loyalty because they saw the Mongols as rude and uncivilized, Kublai Khan had to adopted Chinses practices, name the dynasty a Chinese name, and move the capital to China. It is in present day Beijing. Kublai Khan did not allow Mongolians into the empire either. Khan did not trust the Chinese government so he would have non-Chinese hold high ranks in the government. Chinese officials still served at local levels. Under Kublai Khan foreign trade increased and the Pax Mongolia made travel safer. Khan Also built the ships for trade. A man named Marco Polo and his father traveled to China and visited the Yuan court. Kublai Khan sent Marco Polo on mission for 17 years around China. After they both returned to their home Venice, Italy, Polo was captured and thrown in prison. He told his stories of traveling China to an inmate and he wrote them down a published a book of it. The dynasty weakened greatly when Khan died. They were not sure who would take over. A lack of leadership leaded to raising taxes which resulted in worsening the people and economy. The Yuan were defeated by a rebel army in 1368.