claire mumm kettner, period 6

this is a moon cycle. :)

Waxing- During this phase of the moon, fifty percent of it is illuminated and visible from the Earth.

Waning- To have a progressively smaller part of its visible surface illuminated, so that it appears to decrease in size.

Gibbous- Having the observable illuminated part greater than a semicircle and less than a circle.

Crescent- The curved sickle shape of the waxing or waning moon.

During the phase of the waxing moon, fifty percent of it is illuminated and visible from the Earth. It occurs after the Crescent phase and before the waxing Gibbous phase. This phase of the moon is also known as the first quarter moon.

During the waning phase of the moon, the amount of the moon that is illuminated decreases, and the part that is dull increases.

LUNAR CYCLE- A lunar cycle is also known as the moon cycle, or moons continuous orbit around the earth. This cycle lasts 29.53059 days!!!

Earths seasons/eclipses!!!
#RockinReview #eclipses

Who was Mr. Copernicus? Copernicus was a man who lived between 1473 and 1543. He was the first person to suggest that the sun was the center of the solar system, not earth.

We have different seasons because the earth is always facing different parts of the sun, therefore causing different amounts of light to be shown on Earth.

The reason winter is not warm even though it is close to the sun is because temperature depends not only on the amount of heat the atmosphere receives from the sun, but also on the amount of heat it loses due to the absorption of this heat by the ground and ocean.

Lunar eclipses do not occur every month because the moon is tilted at a small angle (5.2 degrees) and the Earth is also tilted.

We have day and night because the earth rotates, therefore exposing only portions of its surface to the moon.

EQUINOX- the time or date at which the sun crosses the equator.

SOLSTICE- when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at noon, marked by the longest and shortest days.

Plate tectonics

Alfred Wagener was the scientist who theorized plate tectonics.

CONVERGENT-In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary (because of subduction), is an actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide.

DIVERGENT-In plate tectonics, a divergent boundary, or divergent plate boundary (also known as a constructive boundary or an extensional boundary) is a linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.

TRANSFORM-A transform fault or transform boundary, also known as conservative plate boundary since these faults neither create nor destroy lithosphere, is a type of fault whose relative motion is predominantly horizontal in either sinistral or dextral direction.


The Juan De Fuca plate is just off the coast of Washington.

The Juan de fuca plate formed a chain of volcano summits, and the plate is still diving down beneath our feet.

CONVECTION CURRENTS-a current in a fluid that results from convection.Convection Currents drive and direct plate tectonics.

RIFT ZONE-A rift zone is a feature of some volcanoes, especially shield volcanoes, in which a linear series of fissures in the volcanic edifice allows lava to be erupted from the volcano's flank instead of from its summit.

SUBDUCTION ZONE- A subduction zone is the biggest smash-up on Earth, marking the collision between two of the planet's tectonic plates, the pieces of crust that slowly move across the surface over millions of years. When two tectonic plates meet, one may slide underneath the other, curving down into the mantle.

The channeled scablands were formed when a large glacier lake drained onto the area, creating a huge flood.

Rocks and Roles

SEDIMENTARY- types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. (sandstone)

METAMORPHIC- Rock that was once one form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase. (slate)

IGNEOUS- Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.  (granite)

STRATIFICATION- The process by which materials form or are deposited in layers, as in sedimentary rocks and some igneous rock.

Scientists can determine how old a fossil is by what rock layer it is in. The deeper the layer is, the older the fossil. This is true because as rocks age, new layers form on top of the old layers.

If an old layer of rock suddenly had a new one, one thing that could of happened is a volcano could of erupted and the magma could of dried on top of the old rock, therefore forming a whole new layer of rock.

Sometimes, coral reefs from then solidify, forming brand new layers of earth.

Other times, limestone deposits can erupt and form new layers on top of old ones.

Cells and Stuff

CELL- the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane.

Although, the overall function of the cell is the same, there are some important differences between animal and plant cells. The first difference is that plant cells have an organelle(A structure or part that is enclosed within its own membrane inside a cell and has a particular function) called chloroplast. Chloroplasts contain a pigment called chlorophyll (which gives the plant its green color). Another difference is that plants do have cell walls, and animal cells do not.

The two differences between plant and animal cells is that the plant cell has a CELL WALL-The rigid outer covering of a typical plant cell, composed mainly of cellulose and lying outside the cell membrane. Another difference is that plant cells have chloroplast, that makes them green. Lastly, theplant cell has a centriole, that organizes chromosomes.

muscle cells- muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion.

bone cells- there are two categories of bone cells. Osteoclasts are in the first category. They resorb (dissolve) the bone. The other category is the osteoblast family, which consists of osteoblasts that form bone, osteocytes that help maintain bone, and lining cells that cover the surface of the bone.

nerve cells- The axon ( nerve fibre) transmits electrical signals from the cell body. The shape of the nerve depends on its function.

cartilage cells- make up most of your nose, ear, and any other part of your body that has cartilage.

secretory cells- The secretory pathway is a series of steps a cell uses to move proteins out of the cell; a process known as secretion. The path of a protein destined for secretion has its origins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, a membrane-bound compartment in the cell.

epithelial cells- functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption, protection, trancellular transport and detection of sensation.

adipose cells- they stare fat.

blood cells- carry oxygen from your lungs to all parts of your body and to carry carbon dioxide from other parts of the body to your lungs so that it can be exhaled.

The cells and tissue that make up organs such as the heart do nothing without the work of all the muscle and other nerve, epithelial and other cells.

Other systems like the cell system work together such as the respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems.

this system is different than others because it only has one cell


1. The two genotypes in the table are G and g.

2.  Green flower, Green flower, Green flower, yellow flower.

3. two

4. two

5. Sexual reproduction is more diverse because each parent contributes a trait, while a-sexual reproduction, the one parent only has their own traits to deliver.

ADAPTION- the action or process of adapting or being adapted to a species needs.

EVOLUTION- the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.  

SPECIES- a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.

GENE- a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.

GENETIC- of or relating to genes or heredity

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION-the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types (sexes). In most higher organisms, one sex (male) produces a small motile gamete that travels to fuse with a larger stationary gamete produced by the other (female)

A-SEXUAL REPRODUCTION- the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types (sexes). In most higher organisms, one sex (male) produces a small motile gamete that travels to fuse with a larger stationary gamete produced by the other (female).

genetic variation os good for survival because overtime, animals needs change and they need to adapt to survive.

Eco Systems

1. dessert- the dessert ecosystem is a dry, humid place.

2.  grassland- the grassland is very grassy and has lots of trees.

3. forest-the forest has alot of trees.

4  aquatic- the aquatic ecosystem is composed of water

5. tundra- very cold, and frozen.

The mushroom decomposed the ground material.

The deer is a consumer of herbs.

There are seven types of ecosystems.

Plants are producers of their own food. They produce food through photosynthesis.

Everyone is part of the food chain. Humans are at the top of the food chain.

Frogs are biotic because they come from living organisms.

Plants are abiotic because they come from seeds, not living organisms.

Over time, elephants have adapted.

Some biotic factors in a wetland ecoststem are animals. Animals are part of the food chain in the wetland ecosystem.

Some abiotic factors in a wetland ecosystem are plants. Plants are also part of the food chain.

First, the producer (algae) provides for the primary consumer (water bug) then the secondary consumer (fish) then the tertiary consumer (turtles) then the quarternary consumer (beaver) and finally the top preditor (aligator)

Energy enters the food chain through the sun.

Arrows in a food web represent energy flow.

14. If a step was taken out of the web, the top preditors would starve because they wouldnt be able to eat the food.

15. Wetlands have important filtering capabilities for intercepting surface- water runoff from higher dry land before the runoff reaches open water. As the runoff water passes through, the wetlands retain excess nutrients and some pollutants, and reduce sediment that would clog waterways and affect fish and amphibian egg development

16. Wetlands function as natural sponges that trap and slowly release surface water, rain, snowmelt, groundwater and flood waters

17. Wetland plants hold the soil in place with their roots, absorb the energy of waves, and break up the flow of stream or river currents.

18. Estuarine and marine fish and shellfish, various birds, and certain mammals must have coastal wetlands to survive

19. Wetlands have recreational, historical, scientific, and cultural values

Comment Stream

2 years ago

well I'm not done yet Mrs. Kettner- duh