Canadian Shield is the geographic foundation of Canada. The Shield underlies not only much of Canada but also parts of United States .
Two types of rock, igneous and metamorphic, from most of the Shield. They contain valuable minerals in great quantities. Because of the vast deposits of lead, gold, nickel, copper, zinc, and other important metals.
The climate of the Canadian Shield is different from the climate in Alberta. In the Canadian Shield , there are short cold winters and long hot summers .
The plants of the Canadian Shield are different from the rest of plants in Canada. Mostly trees grow in the Canadian Shield, there are many different type of trees. In the southern part of the Canadian Shield the forests are mixed with birch, aspen, tamarack, black and white spruce, hemlock, pine and balsam trees.
Further north in Canada the vegetation grades to tundra and ultimately the cold deserts of the High Arctic. In the northern third of Canada, soil-forming processes are dominated by the presence of permanently frozen ground (permafrost) close (1 to 2 m) to the soil surface. In some cases mixing of the horizons due to ice occurs where the soil texture and moisture conditions are conducive to it. In other situations the soil horizons are not mixed together.