Waxing:  Having a progressively larger part of its visible surface illuminated, increasing its apparent size.

Waning: Having a progressively smaller part of its visible surface illuminated, so that it appears to decrease in size.

Gibbous: Having the observable illuminated part greater than a semicircle and less than a circle.

Crescent: The curved sickle shape of the waxing or waning moon.

The term "moon cycle" (or "lunar cycle") refers to the moon's continuous orbit around the earth.1 lunar cycle =29.53059 days


Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at its center.

We have seasons because the earth is tilted as it makes its yearly journey around the sun.

Lunar eclipse does not occur on a monthly basis because the Sun isn'texactly in line with the Earth and the moon.

We have day and night because the Earth rotates.

Equinox - when daytime and night are of approximately equal duration

Solstice - A solstice is an astronomical event that occurs twice each year as the Sun reaches its highest or lowest excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.


                   Plate Tectonics

Alfred Lothar Wegener was a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist. He was primarily known for his achievements in meteorology and as a pioneer of polar research, but today he is most remembered for advancing the theory of continental drift (Kontinentalverschiebung) in 1912, which hypothesized that the continents were slowly drifting around the Earth.

Convergent - coming closer together, especially in characteristics or ideas.

Divergent - tending to be different or develop in different directions.

Places where plates slide past each other are called transform boundaries.

Juan de Fuca Plate is a... Fracture Zone (running northwest off the coast of Oregon, USA

Convection currents in the magma drive plate tectonics.

A rift zone is a feature of some volcanoes

Subduction is the process that takes place at convergent boundaries by which one tectonic plate moves under another tectonic plate and sinks into the mantle as the plates converge

The Channeled Scablands are a barren, relatively soil-free landscape in eastern Washington, scoured clean by a flood unleashed when a large glacial lake drained.

Rocks and Roles

Sedimentary - (of rock) that has formed from sediment deposited by water or air.

Metamorphic - denoting rock that has undergone transformation by heat, pressure, or other natural agencies, e.g., in the folding of strata or the nearby intrusion of igneous rocks.

Igneous - having solidified from lava or magma.

Example of Sedimentary rocks - shale

Example of Igneous - basalt

Example of Metamorphic - marble

Stratification is the relative social position of persons in a given social group, category, geographical region or other social unit.

If there is more rock layers it tends to be older since more sediment has formed into rock over time.

It could've happened by rough weather over the years.

Living orgasisims could've affected it by, use energy released by respiration, obtain nucleic acids, use oxygen to get energy, overcome activation ...