Causes of the American Revolution
The Treaty of Paris
The Treaty of Paris, along with the Treaty of Hubertusberg, ended the Seven Years War(or the French and Indian War, as it was called in America). Great Britain, France, Spain signed this treaty. It affected Great Britain, France, and Spain, because they lost and gained land in signing it. There was actual colonial reaction to the Treaty of Paris because by signing it, Spain gave up Florida,and the French lost its possessions on the North American continent by giving up Canada and all its territories east of the Mississippi to Great Britain. The final resolution to the Treaty of Paris was the Hubertusberg and Paris signing the Treaty.
Proclamation of 1763
The Proclamation of 1763 prevented colonists on the North American continent from expanding onto the frontier. Along with this, the American Indians were also now under the protection of King George lll. The proclamation also introduced four new colonies. These colonies were West and East Florida, Grenada, and Quebec. King George was the man that wanted this proclamation. This proclamation was introduced to calm the fears of the Native Americans, who thought the colonists would drive them from their land as they expanded towards the frontier. The colonists saw this as a way for the British to control them easier, because of this, the colonists ignored the proclamation, and expanded westward. Eventually, the proclamation was lifted.
The Sugar Act was a renewed and modified version of the Sugar and Molasses Act in 1733. The Act stated that colonial merchants had to pay a tax of six pence per gallon for foreign molasses. The act was meant to get the colonists to pay their taxes to help the British with their debts from war, but the act backfired on the British when the colonial merchants began to use the cheaper French molasses. Other products were also taxed under this act, like certain wines, coffees, pimiento, cambric, and printed calico. The colonists (of course) upset the colonists, which led to revolt of the Sugar Act. The Sugar Act was repealed in 1766, and was replaced with the Revenue Act. This reduced the tax on molasses to one penny per gallon.
Due to a huge debt from Britain's wars, citizens in England had to pay massive taxes. The people did not like this, so they gave out threats of revolt against the British. That's where the Stamp Act came in. The colonists were taxed on items such as papers, legal documents, licenses, newspapers, and even playing cards. There were a variety of reactions from displaying resistance to the act in colonial legislatures to mobs and large crowds tarring and feathering tax collectors! After months of protest, the Stamp Act was voted to be repealed by the parliament in March, 1766.
The Boston Massacre occurred on March 5, 1770. A squad of British soldiers came to support a guard that had snowballs, sticks, and stones being thrown at him by colonists. The British soldiers then shot and killed 3, while wounding 8 others (2 of the 8 wounded died later). The colonial response to the Boston Massacre was outrage.Citizens in Boston were outraged at the British soldiers,but colonists in other colonies were also outraged after seeing Paul Revere's engraving about the Boston Massacre. The final resolution to the Boston Massacre was the soldiers and their captain being put on trial for their involvement with the Boston Massacre. The soldiers were found not guilty.
The Tea Act of 1773 was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain. Its main purpose was to reduce the massive surplus of tea held by the financially troubled British East India Company in its London warehouses, and to help the struggling company survive. The colonial response to the Tea Act was the Boston Tea Party, where colonists were so outraged of the taxes on tea that they disguised as Native Americans and dumped tea into the Boston Harbor.The Tea Act was eventually repealed in 1773.
Boston Tea Party
The Boston Tea Party of 1773 was a political protest involved with the Sons' of Liberty as they dressed up as Mohawk Indians and dumped 90,000 lb. of tea into Boston Harbor as an act of repeal of the tea acts.The British lost lots of money because of this act, as 90,000 lb. of tea costs nearly $1,000,000 today! The majority of colonists in America approved of this act. The Boston Tea Party helped have the Tea Act repealed in 1773.
Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
The Coercive Acts were forms of punishment for the colonists as a result of the Boston Tea Party. The Acts were also a way for the British to insert power over the colonists. The Acts closed the Boston Harbor (which heavily hurt the people of Boston), made Massachusetts a crown colony. As a crown colony, Massachusetts's government became a military government, and forbid town meetings without approval. The act also let British officials charged with capital offenses go to England for trial, and made colonists have to quarter British soldiers in their homes. The colonies of course did not like this acts, so they formed the First Continental Congress. The Acts, were repealed the same year they were introduced (1774).
Lexington and Concord
On April 18th 1755, 700 British soldiers marched to Lexington to capture an arms cache. Paul Revere and other men went to militiamen to say "the British are coming!". At dawn on April 19th in Lexington, 77 militiamen were fired at by the 700 British troops. After this, the British moved on to Concord in search of the weapons, just to find that they had been relocated. When the troops began to burn what little weapons they found, militiamen in Concord thought the town was being burned down, so they evacuated to the North Bridge. There, British soldiers fired at the militiamen, until the colonists fired back, this was called the "shot heard 'round the world". The British then decided to march to Boston, however 2,000 militiamen had begun to follow the troops. The minutemen followed and even fired at the troops as they tried to go back to Boston. The British and minutemen found themselves back in Lexington, where the real battle began. The British during the battle, tried to hold the colonists off with cannon shots and flanking parties.The militiamen actually could have finished the British off, but they were ordered not to attack, and the British escaped to Charlestown Neck. In this battle, the colonists showed that they can stand up to the British, and the
Second Continental Congress
In the meeting of the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia, Georgia was now participating. The colony sent John Zulby, John Houstoun, Archibald Bulloch, Noble Wimberly Jones, and Lyman Hall. In this meeting, the representatives agreed that a continental army would be created with George Washington as supreme commander, and the congress authorized the making of printed money. The congress also agreed to send the Olive Branch Petition to the king of England. This was an attempt at a peaceful resolution. Only some colonists liked this though, because there were still many colonists that wanted to stay loyal to England. The king refused to receive the petition, and instead, he ordered Hessian mercenaries to keep the colonists under control.
Declaration of Independence adopted
On July 4th, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was adopted. The Declaration of Independence declared the colonies an independent country which severed their ties with England. Being considered an independent country, the colonies also became allies with France in the war to defeat the British, and was recognized by foreign countries. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. By this point in 1776, the colonists were very happy that this declaration was adopted.