The War of 1812

Jefferson’s popularity soared after the Louisiana Purchase, and he won reelectionin 1804. During his second term, renewed fighting between Britain and Francethreatened American shipping.

GRIEVANCES AGAINST BRITAIN Although both France and Britain engaged inthese acts of aggression, Americans focused their anger on the British

TECUMSEH’S CONFEDERACY Another source of trouble appeared in 1809,when General William Henry Harrison, the governor of the IndianaTerritory, invited several Native American chiefs to Fort Wayne, Indiana, andpersuaded them to sign away three million acres oftribal land to the U.S. government.

THE WAR HAWKS In November 1811, while Tecumseh was absent, his brotherled the Shawnee in an attack on Harrison and his troops.

The War Brings Mixed Results

THE WAR IN CANADA Declaring war was one thing—but fighting it was another.The American military was unprepared for war.

THE WAR AT SEA The war was an opportunity for the relatively young U.S. Navyto test its ability.

BRITISH BURN THE WHITE HOUSE By 1814, the British were raiding andburning towns all along the Atlantic coast.

THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS At the same time, a general from Tennesseenamed Andrew Jackson was winning a series of battles that gained him nationalfame. After a six months’ campaign involving four battles, Jackson defeatedNative Americans of the Creek tribe at the battle of Horseshoe Bend in March of1814. The Creeks had earlier been victorious at the battle of Fort Mims in whichall but 36 of the fort’s 553 inhabitants were killed.

THE TREATY OF GHENT Unknown to Jackson, British and American diplomatshad already signed a peace agreement. The Treaty of Ghent, signed onChristmas Eve 1814, declared an armistice, or end to the fighting.

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