Four Girls Killed in Bombing of Church
(a) On September 15, 1963 four members of the (b) Ku Klux Klan planted 15 sticks of dynamite under the 16th street baptist church. The dynamite ended up (b) killing four girls and injuring 22 others. (c) The bombing marked a turning point in the Civil Rights Movement, and was a big part of the support for the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
"one of the most vicious and tragic crimes ever perpetrated against humanity"- MLK Jr.
Montgomery Bus Boycotts
(a) The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a peaceful protest in which (b) African American citizens refused to ride city buses in Montgomery, Alabama. Four days before the boycott started (b) Rosa Parks was arrested when she refused to give her seat up to a white man. (c) The U.S. Supreme Court eventually ordered Montgomery to integrate its bus system, and also Martin Luther King Jr. emerged as a prominent national leader of the American civil rights movement in the wake of the boycotts.
The Assassination of MLK Jr.
(a) On April 4, 1968, 39 year old Martin Luther King Jr. was shot and killed while standing on the balcony outside of his motel in Memphis Tennessee. (b) MLK Jr. was killed by James Earl Ray who was arrested and granted a 99 year sentence. (c) After MLK Jr. was killed riots broke out all over the South and even President Johnson called for a day of mourning on April 7th. The country was shocked that such a great and inspiring leader was killed.
Little Rock Nine
(a) In the integration of central high school, (b) nine black students enrolled at a all white school in Little Rock, Arkansas. On the first day of classes the Governor of Arkansas called in the state National Guard to escort the black students into the school. (c) The court had mandated that all public schools in the country be integrated, because the U.S. Supreme Court declared that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.
Integration of the University of Mississippi
(a) In September 1962, an African American man, (b) James Meredith, attempted to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Riots broke out on the campus leaving two dead and hundreds wounded. (c) The issues dealing with the integration at the University of Mississippi lead the court case that said segregation in schools was illegal to be reopened, considering it said to public schools, and the issues at the University of Mississippi cleared the issue up saying that colleges were included to not be segregated.
Murder of NAACP leader Medgar Evers
(a) On June 12, 1963 in Jackson, Mississippi, African American civil rights activist, (b) Medgar Evers was shot and killed in his driveway by a white supremacist Byron De La Beckwith. (c) The case was so controversial because Byron De La Beckwith was set free when two all white juries could not come to a decision on whether or not he was guilty for Evers death. Eventually years later when Beckwith was 73 he was sentenced to life in prison after the case was reopened.
Murders of Three Civil Right Workers
(a) On August 4, 1964 three civil rights activists were found dead in shallow graves near Philadelphia, Mississippi. (b) Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman, were both white activists and James Chaney was a local African American man. The men were captured by the KKK and were shot to death after they were driven out to Philadelphia, Mississippi. (c) The verdict of the men who killed the civil rights activists was hailed as a major civil rights victory, because no one in Mississippi had ever before seen someone in Mississippi be convicted for actions against a civil rights worker.
March for Voting Rights to Montgomery
In early 1965, Martin Luther King Jr. led a march from Selma to Montgomery to focus its efforts on black voting rights in the South. The marches were met with violence from state and local authorities. (b) The protesters and Martin Luther King Jr. reached Montgomery in 3 days. (c) The march helped raised awareness of the difficulty faced by black voters in the south and the need for the Voting Rights Act which was passed later that year.
First Lunch Counter Sit In (1960)
(a) On February 1, 1960 four (b) African American college students sat down to eat lunch at a counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. When they politely asked for some service they were denied and they were asked to leave, but they stayed in their seats. (c) Their peaceful sit down demand helped to ignite a youth-led movement to challenge racial inequality throughout the South.
Brown v Board of Education
(a) On May 17, 1954 the (b) U.S. Supreme Court made a unanimous decision to overturn provisions of the 1896 Plessy v Ferguson decision which allowed for "separate but equal" public facilities which included public schools in the United States. (c) The Brown v Board of Education decision helped break the back of state-sponsored segregation, and provided a spark to the American civil rights movement.
"I Have a Dream": March on Washington
(a) On August 28, 1963 more than 200,000 Americans gathered in Washington D.C. for a political rally known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The event was designed to shed light on the political and social challenges that (b) African Americans had to face across the country. (c) The march became a key moment in the growing struggle for equal rights for African Americans in the U.S. Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech was a spirited call for racial justice and equality.
(a) Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated South in 1961 to challenge the non-enforcement of the (b) U.S. Supreme Court's decision on segregated buses. The Southern States ignored the ruling and law enforcement did nothing to enforce them. (b) The Freedom Riders challenged this by riding interstate buses in the South in mixed racial groups to challenge local laws or customs that enforced segregation in seating. (c) The Freedom Rides, and the violent reactions they provoked, bolstered the credibility of the American Civil Rights Movement. They called national attention to the disregard for the federal law and the local violence used to enforce segregation in the southern United States
KKK Meets City Police in St. Augustine
(a) In the spring of 1964 St. Augustine, FL was preparing to celebrate its 400th anniversary, (b) Martin Luther King Jr. and some other local organizations launched a massive campaign supporting the local movement to end racial discrimination in the nations oldest city. (b) The Ku Klux Klan and other whites responded with violence to the demonstrations which escalated. As the violence continued, King appealed to the federal government for assistance, asking the White House to pressure prominent white citizens to negotiate in good faith. By late June 1964 King was eager to leave St. Augustine and focus efforts on Alabama. (c) The violence the KKK evoked on the African Americans at the protests was noticed by city police and further protests were protected against KKK attacks.