Earth, Moon, and Sun
By: Lydia Obman
Lunar Eclipse- occurs when the moon passes directly behind the Earth into its shadow. This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and moon are aligned exactly or very close with the Earth in the middle. A lunar eclipse can only occur when there is a full moon.
Bill Nye The Science Guy Video
1. How does Earth move in space?
Earth moves through space in two major ways: rotation and revolution. As you know, the imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and the North and South poles is Earth's axis. The spinning of Earth on its axis is called rotation. In addition to rotating on its axis, Earth travels around the sun. Revolution is the movement of one object around another.
2. What causes the cycle of season on Earth?
Earth has seasons because its axis is tilted as it revolves around the sun. If Earth's axis were straight up and down relative to its orbit, temperatures would remain fairly constant year-round; there would be no seasons.
1. What determines the strength of the force of gravity between two objects?
The strength of the force of gravity between two objects depends on two factors: the masses of the objects and the distance between them. According to the law of universal gravitation, all of the objects around you, including Earth, are pulling on you, just as you are pulling on them.
2. What two factors combine to keep the moon and Earth in orbit?
Newton concluded that two factors - inertia and gravity - combine to keep Earth in orbit around the sun and the moon in orbit around Earth. Earth's gravity keeps pulling the moon toward it, preventing the moon from moving in a straight line. At the same time, the moon keeps moving ahead because of its inertia. If not for Earth's gravity, inertia would cause the moon to move off through space in a straight line.
1. What causes the phases of the moon?
The changing relative positions of the moon, Earth, and sun cause the phases of the moon, eclipses, and tides. Like Earth, the moon moves through space in two ways. The moon revolves around Earth and also rotates on its own axis. As the moon revolves around Earth, the relative position of the moon, Earth, and sun change.
2. What are solar and lunar eclipses?
A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes directly between Earth and the sun, blocking sunlight from Earth. During a lunar eclipse, Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon.
3. What causes the tides?
Tides are caused mainly by differences in how much the moon's gravity pulls on different parts of Earth.
1. What features are found on the moon's surface?
Features on the moon's surface include maria, craters, and highlands. Maria- The moon's surface has dark, flat areas, which Galileo called maria. Craters- Galileo saw that the moon's surface is marked by large round pits called craters. Highlands-Galileo correctly inferred that some of the light colored features he saw on the moon's surface were highlands, or mountains.
2. What are some characteristics of the moon?
The moon is dry and airless. Compared to Earth, the moon is small and has large variations in its surface temperature. If you visited the moon, you would need to wear a bulky space suit to provide air to breathe, protect against sunburn, and to keep you at a comfortable temperature.
3.How did the moon form?
Scientists theorize that a planet-sized object collided with Earth to form the moon. Material from the object and Earth's outer layers was ejected into orbit around Earth, where it formed a ring. Gravity caused this material to combine to form the moon.