Ivey Chapter 5

Encouraging, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing


*Verbal and non-verbal expressions the counselor uses to prompt client to continue talking

*Too many encouragers can seem fake. Too few encouragers can seem cold.

Encouragers examples:
*head nod
*open-handed gestures
*positive facial expressions
*silence (when used correctly)
*short questions/one word encouragers (about what client is discussing)
*restatement using clients exact words


*Goal: facilitate client exploration and clarification of issues

*Feeds back key words and phrases and "distills" the essence of what the client just said (and may help clear confusion)

*"So what I heard you say is..."

*Your voice and body language help tell client--I know what you said OR I really need more clarification

*You know you have paraphrased appropriately when client stops retelling the story (they tell it until they feel heard)

*Client will sometimes let you know if you're on target with a "That's right." or "Yes!" (and hopefully they will expound OR move on to a new topic)

How to paraphrase:

*Use the key words used by the client to describe the situation
*Give the essence of what the client said--brief and clear. Stay true, be succinct, don't restate exactly.
*Check it out. Am I hearing you correctly?


*Encompasses an even longer period of time than a paraphrase does
*Compile verbal/non-verbal comments as well as key concepts and dimensions
*Good times to use summarizing:
--at the beginning of a session (recap last session)
--midway through the session (to make sure you are on track and going the same direction as the client)
--end of the session (make sure you have it summed up correctly)