By: Lauren V.E. 3 Paperoni
Probably one of the most recognizable things of ancient Egypt are pyramids. Pyramids were tombs built to keep the body of the pharaoh safe from robbers. Pyramids were built out of mud bricks and would sometimes have high quality limestone at the peak. The most famous pyramids were the pyramids of Giza. The pyramids were toms for pharaoh Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure. To be a true tomb fit for a pharaoh, it had to align with the north star. Inside of the pyramid, to confuse robbers, there were many false hallways and trap doors to make sure that robbers never found the pharaoh. Around pyramids, towns would spring up consisting of builders of the pyramids, vendors to sell things to builders and guards to protect the pyramid.
Caption: Three pyramids in Giza. One of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
Daily life of the average farmers were very interesting ones so I decided to dedicate a paragraph or two to this. Peasants or farmers had small houses, but nice ones. The land lord would most likely not care how big the farmers built their houses as long as the could afford it. The bricks were made out of mud and straw, then left out in to be sun-dried. Most Egyptians would work out in the fields of the crop wheat all day and go bath in the Nile. Egyptian most common article of clothing was the tunic. The Egyptians look was very distinct look because of the red-lipstick, green eye-shadow, and black eyeliner that went into the temples.
The more wealthy people such as nobles had very large houses with 25-30 rooms with most of them as storage. The rich would sometimes buy limestone to put on the walls of their houses to make it look clean and make the whole house sparkle. The centers of these houses would sometimes have fountains in the centers to keep the house cool. They had bathrooms spread out through the house, only with out running water. On the backside of the house they would have multiple fountains and gardens.
Caption: Farmers harvesting wheat and sowing it.
The thing that come before the use of the pyramid is the process of mummification. The six main steps of mummification are...
1. Announcing of Death
After the pharaoh had died, messengers would go out and announce to all of Egypt that the Pharaoh was dead.
2. Removal of Brain
The first thing the Egyptians would do with the body when it came into the mummification tent was pull out the brain because to the Egyptians, the brain was useless and a waste of space. They used a long wire hose and a wood block to get the hook through the nose and into the brain to pull it out. One way to do this was to wrap the hook around the brain and slowly pull it out. The other option was to put the hook into the brain, swirl it around, and tip the bod so the now liquid brain would run out.
3. Removal of Organs
The next space step of mummification is to remove the organs inside the body. The person who would have to slit the skin of the pharaoh would get pelted with small stones even though it was necessary for mummification. After the slitter was escorted away from the tent, they would pull out the lungs, small intestines, stomach and liver. They would then put them in Canopic Jars (as shown below). To preserve the natural shape of the body, they would stuff rags or straw to keep it's shape.
4. Drying of Body
The drying of the body was an easy step. First, they would put Natron Salt all over the body until you could not see the body anymore. Natron salt is a drying agent and soaks out moisture. They would leave the Natron salt alone for about 40 days.
5. Wrapping of Body
After the body was fully dried, the Egyptians would start wrapping the body with linen. Between the layers of linen they would place good luck amulets to protect the mummy in the afterlife.
6. Procession to the Pyramid
After all the coffins were put on, the mummy would be carried by four men to the pyramid in a procession. People were paid to cry to show the pharaoh or person was loved. People would line the streets to see the mummy go to it's final resting place, the pyramids.
Caption: Canopic Jars with the organs (left to right) lungs, stomach, intestines, and liver.
GODS AND GODESSES
Here is a list of first, the major gods, then minor ones. If you want to know which one is which, after the description, it may say 18 and move to the right on the top row, and then move down to the next row's left and continue. Any gods or goddesses that are not on the picture below will be on the other website.
Major Gods and Goddesses
Ra: The sun god, one of the most important gods (shown as a red sun) Horus: Man with the head of a hawk, god of the sky, protector of the ruler of Egypt(6) Atum: Man with double crown, also the first god to exist on earth because he is the creator god(14) Osiris: A mummified man wearing a white cone-like headdress with feathers, he is also the god of the dead and underworld, he gave the Egyptians the gift of wheat(13) Anubis: God of embalming/mummification(20) Khnum: A man with the head of a curly-horned ram, is the god of flooding(19) Thoth: A man with the head of an ibis holding a writing pallet, he is the god of writing and knowledge, he gave the gift of hieroglyphics to the Egyptians(12) Geb: Man lying down below the arch of the sky goddess Nut Hathor: Woman with a headdress of horns and a sun disk, she is the goddess of love and joy, she is also mother of the pharaoh(21)
Minor Gods and Goddesses
Ra-Horakhte: A combination of Ra and Horus. God of the rising sun(1) Amun: Man with a ram head, he is one of the most powerful gods and at one point in Egyptian history was considered the king of the gods(15) Isis: Woman with a headdress of throne on her head, she is a protective goddess that is married to Osiris(5) Ma'at: Woman with a feather on hear head, she is the goddess of truth, justice, and harmony(16) Nephtys: Woman with headdress showing her name in hieroglyphics, she is the protective goddess of the dead(11) Bes: Dwarf with human and ion features, he is the god of family and protects against snake and scorpion bites Ptah: Man wrapped in a tight white cloak carrying a staff, god of craftsmanship(3) Bastet: Woman with the head of a cat(10)
Nefertem: God of perfumes, could have a warlike aspect(17)
Teftnut: Goddess of moisture, has twin Shu, the god of air(7)
Caption: Pictures of the Egyptian gods. I will mention the more important ones above.
Pharaohs were like the kings of ancient Egypt. Pharaohs were also the most powerful people in Egypt. They were both political and religious leaders for the Egyptians, and would sometimes temporarily say there was only one god. Pharaohs were treated like gods in ancient Egypt and were often the only ones who had enough money to have a pyramid and mummification to happen. Some of the most famous pharaohs are Khufu, who built the largest pyramid in Giza or anywhere. The other famous pharaoh is Tutankhamen, who was one of the only pharaohs who was found with all his treasures. Some people refer to him as the boy king because he became pharaoh at age nine and died at age nineteen.
Caption: Picture of King Tut's golden sarcophagus.