Textbook Pages 640-643

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Metaphor: Describes one thing as if it were something else.  Her eyes were saucers, wide with expectation.

Personification: Gives human qualities to something nonhuman.  The clarinets sang.

Similes: Use like or as to compare two unlike things.  the icy water was like stinging bees.

Alliteration: The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words, as in feathered friend.

Repetition: The repeated use of a sound, word, or phrase.

Assonance: The repetition of vowel sounds in stress syllables that end with different consonant sounds, as in fade and hay.

Consonance: The repetition of final consonant sounds in stressed syllables with different vowel sounds, as in end and hand.

Onomatopoeia: The use of words that imitate sounds, like Pow!

Rhyme: The repetition of sounds at the ends of words, such as thin skin.

Rhythm: The pattern of strong and weak beats, as well as pauses, in a poem.  Rhythm in music and in poetry are similar.

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Lines: Adds natural pauses by breaking up a poem into many individual parts.  Each line may be punctuated differently, or not at all.  A capital letter usually introduces the beginning of a line.

Stanzas: The arrangement of groups of lines to create an appearance on the page or to organize thoughts.  Each stanza is set off from the next stanza by a blank line below it.  Certain forms of poetry have a set number of lines and a rhythmical pattern that each stanza must follow.  Others, like free verse, have not such restrictions.

Meter: The rhythmical pattern, or the arrangement and umber of stressed and unstressed syllables.  Strong and weak beats can be indicated, as follows: whose WOODS these ARE i THINK i KNOW.

Rhyme Scheme: The pattern of rhyme in a poem.  It is written in letters; aabb is a stanza whose first two and last two lines rhyme.

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Epic: Long narrative poems that tell an exciting or inspiring story, usually about a hero.  As fits its subject, an epic has a serious, elevated ton and sometimes has a regular meter.  Epics often begin with an appeal to a museā€”the beings that the ancient Greeks believed controlled inspiration in the arts.

Ballads: Song-like poems that tell a story, often dealing with adventure, tragedy, or romance.

Free Verse Poetry: Defined by its lack of strict structure.  It has not regular meter, no intentional rhyme, no fixed line length, and no specific stanza pattern.  Instead, the poet chooses a loose structure that fits the poem.

Limericks: Humorous five-line poems with a specific rhythmic pattern and an aabba rhyme scheme.

Concrete Poem: A poem in which the words are arranged on the page to forma a shape that suggests the topic or ideas in the poem.  Concrete poems often have a lighthearted or humorous tone.  Their structure is loose, without regular meter, though they may rhyme.

Haikus: Short, unrhymed poems, often about nature.  The form originated in Japan, but it simplicity and power has made it popular worldwide.  Its ton is often thoughtful, but it can be playful as well.

Poem Glossary

Albatross (Rime of the Ancient Mainer): A large long-winged seabird that spends most of its life in flight.

Decorum (The Raven): Dignity or good taste that is appropriate to a specific occasion.

Fickle (Fame is a Fickle Food): Likely to change, especially in affections, intentions, loyalties, or preferences.

Haunches (Fog): The part of the body comprising the hip, buttock, and upper thigh.

Impetuous (Paul Revere's Ride): Acting on the spur of the moment, without considering the consequences.

Keel (O Captain! My Captain!): The main structural element of a ship, stretching along the center line of its bottom from the bow to the stern.  It sometimes extends farther downward into the water to provide extra stability.

Larks (The Raven): Small songbirds with brownish feathers, noted for their songs.

Lore (The Raven): Acquired knowledge or wisdom on a subject such as local traditions, handed down by word of mouth and usually in the form of stories or historical anecdotes.

Melancholy (The Raven): A thoughtful or gentle sadness.

Nepenthe (The Raven): A supposed substance that people took in ancient times to forget their sadness or troubles.

Resonance (Old Pond): An intense and prolonged sound produced by sympathetic vibration.

Rime (Rime of the Ancient Mariner): A thin coating of frost formed on cold objects exposed to fog or cloud.

Shorn (The Raven): With hair cut short.

Tyrannous (Rime of the Ancient Mariner): cruel and unjust in the exercise of power or authority over others.

Undergrowth (The Road not Taken): Bushes, small trees, or other vegetation growing beneath the trees in a forest.