Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
Alexander Bell l suggested the idea of a telephone to his assistant, Thomas Watson in 1874. This was so that people could communicate from long distances. he began to experiment on making sound to transmit. In 1876 he was able to make the telephone.
Thomas Edison was curious about the about the world from his early age. He learned all about the mechanical workings of objects. He invented the phonograph in 1877. In 1879 he invented the ligh
In western Pennsylvania, people started noticed oil bubbling to the surface of area springs and to streams. So in 1859, Edwin Drake drilled the first oil well near Titusville, Pennsylvania. By 1900 oil fields had been drilled from Pennsylvania to Texas.
The Central Pacific Railroad began as the dream of engineer Theodore Judah. He sold stock in his fledgling Central Pacific Railroad Company to four Sacramento merchants.
Theodore Judah sold stock in his fledgling Central Pacific Railroad Company to four Sacramento merchants. Because of a shortage of labor in California, the Central Pacific Railroad hired about 10,000 workers from China and paid them about $1.00 a day.
Cornelius Vanderbilt was one of the most successful railroad consolidators. In 1869 he merged three short New York railroads to form the New York Central, running from New York City to Buffalo.
The most famous industrialist who achieved almost complete horizontal integration of his industry was John D. Rockefeller. Instead drilling for oil, hoping to strike it rich like many other entrepreneurs, he decided to build oil refineries instead. By 1870, his company, Standard Oil, was the nation’s largest oil refiner
J. P. Morgan was the most powerful and influential financier of his era. He built a financial empire that became known as the “House of Morgan." His father’s bank in the New York City was where Morgan began his career. During the depression of the 1890's, Morgan used his fortune to finance a bond to rescue the federal government’s depleted gold reserve. He organized the first billion-dollar corporation in 1901.
Eugene V. Debs was a prominent labor leader and member of the American Socialist Party. He went to work as a railroad fireman when he was 15. In 1893 Debs helped organize the American Railway Union. Railway engineers, firemen, conductors, and switch men all had separate unions at the time. Debs was arrested for interfering with the U.S. mail during the ARU’s unsuccessful Pullman strike.
Andrew Carnegie's remarkable life led to the rise of big business in the United States. He went to work as a bobbin boy in a textile factory when he was 12. Two years later he became a messenger. He then worked as secretary to Thomas Scott, and later, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. To concentrate on his own business investments, Carnegie decided to quit his job. As part of his business activities, Carnegie frequently traveled to Europe. On one trip, he met Sir Henry Bessemer, an inventor of a new process for making high-quality steel efficiently and cheaply. Bessemer inspired Carnegie to opened a steel company in Pittsburgh in 1875 and began using the Bessemer process.
Samuel Gompers was the longest-serving president of the American Federation of Labor. Gompers dropped out of school to earn money for his family. He and his family moved to the United States in 1863. In 1877 Gompers became president of the Cigarmakers’ Union. In 1886 he persuaded other craft unions to form the American Federation of Labor and became its first president.