Intro- Papa and baby doc
Picture: Above is a picture of father and son. Francois the smaller man was President of Haiti for a while and later passed it on to his son Jean-Claude.
Francois ruled from 1957–1971 and started as President for Life in 1964.
Papa doc and his son Baby doc. François Duvalier and Jean-Claude Duvalier
Jean-Claude ruled after his father, Francois died. Baby Doc ruled from 1971–1986. He became President for Life after his father died.
Both rulers were cruel, unfair and atrocious rulers and leaders to the people of Haiti. They both abused the people of Haiti and were involved in corruption. Many Haitians fled the country. Some were unable to escape this horrible dictatorship. The Duvaliers killed around 20,000-60,000 people.
The early 1980's
Jean-Claude marries his spouse Michèle Bennett on May 27, 1980. Because of Jean's wedding he faced corruption and did nothing about it. The peeople of Haiti were hopeless. They had many economic troubles. Hunger and economic conditions worsened and spread quickly throughout Haiti. These were many problems for the people of Haiti.
Jean-Claude fails to take actions for Haiti's "Public Health". In 1980 the Swine Fever spread widely across Haiti. Since Jean-Claude didn't do anything about the health problems and conditions in Haiti, this caused more illness and caused people to die.
Plenty of human right workers, journalists and lawyers are arrested and transported from the country. Some were killed.
Picture: Above is a picture of President Jean-Claude Duvalier, The First Lady Michèle Duvalier and the mother-in-law of Jean-Claude outside The Haiti National Palace.
International Aid Agencies find that Haitian Pigs cause African Swine Fever. They created a program to have them killed. They attempted to replace them with other pigs but failed. The pigs that caused Swine Fever were very valuable to the Haitians and could have been used for cash. They didn't want the pigs taken away.
"International aid agencies declare Haitian pigs to be carriers of African Swine Fever and institute a program for their slaughter. Attempts to replace indigenous swine with imported breeds largely fail." dolphin.upenn.edu This quote shows how fast the U.S. reacted to the swine fever and how Baby Doc didn't take any serious actions.
At the time there was a rumor that Haiti had an AIDS outbreak where supposudly many people were diagnosed with AIDS. This of course was not true.
Public services in Haiti were very small and there were very few of them. These services were in very poor condition and couldn't get any worse. Jean-Claude and his group of people were spending and keeping the money that was supposed to go to the public services of Haiti.
"Initial reporting on the AIDS outbreak in Haiti implied that the country might have been a source for the human immune deficiency virus. This rumor, which turned out to be false, hurt the nation's tourism industry, which had grown during Jean-Claude Duvalier's tenure. Already minimal, public services deteriorated as Jean- Claude and his ruling clique continued to misappropriate funds from the national treasury." From: Globalsecurity.org This quote explains the rumors and issues of public health that went around Haiti.
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/h..., http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois_Duvalie..., http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Claude_Duvalier,http://www.travelinghaiti.com/history.asp, http://www.dolphin.upenn.edu/dhsa/history.html
African Swine Fever - Pigs
The image above are some examples of African Swine Fever. A disease that was caused by pigs. Jean-Claude did little about this and ignored it. This caused hunger for many Haitian servants and even people.
Around March, Pope John Paul II visited Haiti and says publicly that, "Things must change here." In Haiti he said that things (economic wise, hunger wise etc.) needed to change the way they were. Meaning things were so bad there and Jean-Claude was doing such a cruel thing to the people of Haiti that even other people noticed.
"Things must change here." Something Pope John Paul II said after seeing what bad condition Haiti was in.
On August 27 Haiti's constitution is amended. Allowing the president to choose his heir or the person who goes into office next.
Haiti was in very bad condition according to pope john paul, "things need to change here"
After Pope John's announcement there was more boycotting, involvment and protesting in Haiti. Jean Claude responded to this by a Ten percent cut in staple food prices, he closed radio stations, and he also added more police and soldiers to the streets.
***Did you know*** that Pope John Paul was the first pope to visit Haiti???
CAN IT GET ANY WORSE??
The cartoon above is an example how bad Baby Doc (Jean-Claude Dulaviar) is. Someone is saying how bad it is there with all the bad weather, natural disasters, the hunger, the bad economy, the poverty and all the diseases. Later he asks if it can get any worse, when Baby Doc comes and takes (the sign Haiti) Haiti under his wing. Meaning he took Haiti and in a way put it in his command, under his rule.
Around 1984, 200 peasants were killed, or massacred at Jean-Rabeau. The peasants were killed because they were asking and "demonstrating" access for land. Baby Doc had them killed.
On March 10 the Haitian Bishops' Conference launched a literacy program in Haiti but it didn't last a long time. This program was nation wide. According to the bishops of Haiti, Haiti was the poorest and least educated nation in the Western Hemisphere. With this program the Haitian Bishops' planned to end this.
The Roman Catholic bishops of Haiti have begun a nationwide campaign to end the illiteracy of this poorest and least educated nation of the Western Hemisphere.
"Bishop Francois Gayot, the head of the Haitian Bishops' Conference, said the aim of the campaign was to ''make three million people literate in the next five years.'' "
Around May of 1984 anti government riots took place in all major cities in Haiti. They were protesting against Jean-Claude Duvlaier's Governing. They wanted food and land. Baby Doc reacted to these protests by raising food prices (which Haitians already couldn't afford) and he also beat Haitians for protesting. The most tragic event that took place because of this protesting was when a pregnant woman was publicly beaten and soon died. The protesting spread to other cities and warehouses. Baby Doc ordered soldiers to violently take care of the protesting.
All information from above was said, quoted, and written by, www.travelinghaiti.com,
Above is a picture of soldiers (that Jean-Claude Duvalier ordered to take care of the protesting) holding back Haitians.
On July of 1985, Protests got much, much stronger and grew with more force and violence. The soldiers were ordered to take action. As a result they took care of this with violence. The soldiers shot and beat people for protesting or for standing up for what they believed in.
On January 31 President Jean-Claude Duvalier amends the constitution to allow the position of Prime Minister of Haiti. He gets to choose who goes in this position.
Around the month of July a referendum was approved or passed, by 99.48% of voters, allowing certain political parties to take part in the government. The political parties recognized the President for Life "rule". A referendum is approved by 99.48% of voters, allowing political parties to participate in the government and recognizing the Presidency for Life of Jean-Claude Duvalier. Like they realize why he has his position for life and they celebrate it.
In late July a constitutional amendment about President for Life was passed. An official amendment. This made the President For Life "rule" official.
On November 28 three schoolchildren were shot by soldiers for being bystanders in protests. This event caused more protests to take place. The event in where the boys were shot triggered much emotion and anger through Haiti.
Above is a picture of when Baby Doc was reaching his final years as Dictator as Haiti.
On January 31 rumors spread through Port-au-Prince that President Duvalier fled the country. This happened because of all the protesting.
On February 3 President Duvalier and members of his cabinet visit commercial and residential areas of Port-au-Prince to show that they didn't leave the country and that they have all the power.
On February 7 Jean-Claude flees the country for France, because the National Council of Government was established.
The original Haitian blue and red was raised at the National Palace, replacing the black and red flag of the Duvalier regime. Meaning Duvalier fled again. Jean-Claude is losing his appearance as a strong, powerful leader.
"President Jean-Claude Duvalier flees Haiti for Talloires, France;" wikipedia.com
In the month of March Former President of Haiti Daniel Fignolé returned to Haiti. He returned because Jean-Claude Duvalier left. Protests were happening all over Haiti against Baby Doc. This leads the U.S. to plan for Jean-Claude and his family to be taken away from Haiti and taken to France. Army leader General Henri Namphy heads a new National Governing Council.
By the time protests reached Cap Haïtien Haitians in the south revolted or were against Haiti. In Les Cayes Riots broke out. Things for Haiti got worse and worse, but the people wanted their freedom and rights so they continued to do what they had to do.
Finally, in the month of March the Duvalier regime is over. The former Haitian President Returns. But he wasn't much better. Haitians Fled the country by boat.
The cartoon above shows how the people of Haiti think of Baby Doc. Many years ago there was an earthquake in Haiti. It was very devastating. In this cartoon the earthquake is Baby doc and he is technically destroying Haiti in the cartoon and in reality.