Rock and Landform Project

Hannah Brown

Igneous Rock

  1. Igneous rock is one of the three main  rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.


  • Basalt is a common extrusive igneous rock that is formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
  • Granite is a very hard, granular, crystalline, igneous rock consisting mainly of quartz, mica, and feldspar and often used as a building stone.
  • Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth.
  • Pumice is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals. It is typically light colored.
  • Rhyolite is a pale fine-grained volcanic rock of granitic composition, typically porphyritic in texture.

Metamorphic Rock

Rock that was once one form of rock, but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase.


  • Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism. It is the finest grained foliated metamorphic rock.
  • Schist is a medium-grade metamorphic rock with medium to large, flat, sheet-like grains in a preferred orientation. It is defined by having more than 50% platy and elongated minerals, often finely interleaved with quartz and feldspar.
  • Gneiss is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.
  • Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
  • Quartzite is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.

Sedimentary Rock

  • Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.  
  • Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust.
  • Conglomerate is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finer-grained matrix that have become cemented together. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias, which consist of angular coasts.  
  • Breccia is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix, that can be either similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.
  • Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.