Embarrassment

An uncomfortable emotional state that occurs in awkward social situations. It is perhaps the most social of all emotions. It always occurs in response to social situations, real or imagined. It requires knowledge of social conventions. It requires mental representation of others’ beliefs and evaluations. Nike Hypervenom Phantom FG Botas Fue Rojo 140107-025. It is an emotion that stems as much from one’s social roles and appearances as from one’s private sense of self.

Embarrassment plays important roles in social life. Despite its reputation as a minor unpleasantness, people’s actions suggest that they consider embarrassment quite aversive. People often go to extremes to avoid this emotion and, when it occurs, they struggle, often cooperatively, to eliminate it. Many aspects of social interaction appear motivated to reduce the possibility of embarrassment (Goffman, 1959). For this reason it may be said that actual episodes of acute embarrassment are fairly infrequent, whereas the fear of embarrassment is nearly ubiquitous. Avoidance of embarrassment may underlie many of the phenomena studied by social psychologists, including conformity, Nike Air Max 1 Mujeres Azul Amarillo Blanco W131101-001, peer pressure, inhibited helping behaviour in bystanders, and obedience to authority. Avoiding the social awkwardness of deviance, confrontation, moral reproach, or falsely declaring an emergency appears to be a central motive producing these phenomena, even to the point of preventing people from following their moral convictions. That these phenomena are often considered counterintuitive illustrates the underappreciation of the power of embarrassment.

The subjective emotional experience of embarrassment is characterized by several reactions (Parrott & Smith, 1991). Its hallmark is a feeling of social awkwardness, often accompanied by flustering, surprise, or feelings of foolishness. The embarrassed person typically feels self-conscious and the focus of attention. There is a strong motivation to mend or escape the situation. Behaviorally, embarrassment is often accompanied by blushing, nervous laughter or smiling, reduced eye contact, and signs of nervousness and autonomic arousal. Theories of Embarrassment Because emotional experience in embarrassing situations is frequently complex, theorists focusing on different aspects have produced a variety of theories of the causes and nature of embarrassment. Nike Kobe 8 Qué the Kobe 635438-800. The theories may be classified into three groups: decreased others’ esteem theories, decreased selfesteem theories, and dramaturgic theories.

Decreased others’ esteem theories focus on one of the most common themes in embarrassment: looking bad in the eyes of others. Such theories assert that embarrassment occurs when one is concerned that one has made an undesirable impression on others, or when there is a discrepancy between one’s self-image and a more negative image projected to others (Edelman, 1987). Such theories often depict the subjective experience of embarrassment as social anxiety. They may also postulate negative affect of a nonanxious type, stemming from acute awareness of a negative public image (Crozier, 1990).

Decreased self-esteem theories claim that the emotional feelings of embarrassment originate in a loss of one’s self-esteem, not in the loss of others’ esteem. In one theory of this type, it is claimed that embarrassment begins with decreases in others’ esteem, Nike Air Max 90 Hombres Gris Azul Blanco 140106-012, but that the emotional intensity of embarrassment is caused by a subsequent decrease in one’s own self-esteem (Modigliani, 1971). Other theories of this type conceive of embarrassment as a mild form of shame, or as a reaction to a violation of one’s personal standards. In contrast, dramaturgic theories deny that either others’ or one’s own esteem for oneself need decrease in embarrassment. Dramaturgic theories instead claim that embarrassment arises from the disruption of the assumptions necessary for social interaction. Drawing on Goffman’s (1959) analysis of social interaction as self-presentation, embarrassment is said to result when there is a disruption in the working consensus of identities in a social interaction. Although such a disruption may result from appearing worse than desired, it need not, because embarrassment can result from being publicly praised or from being in the same situation with someone who commits a faux pas. Dramaturgic theories therefore characterize the subjective experience of embarrassment as flustering and social awkwardness that stem from lacking a coherent or acceptable way to behave.